Osteoporosis, which leads to an increase in bone fragility and vulnerability to fractures, is the most prevalent systemic skeletal system disease. The healing of fracture in osteoporotic patients is often delayed and compromised due to the microarchitectural destruction in bone tissue. Menopause, metabolic diseases, aging, and drug therapies are the different factors leading to osteoporosis.
Recent studies in different types of models have shown that four peptides – BPC-157, AOD 9604, and MOTS-c, have been proven to exhibit healing effects for osteoporosis.
BPC-157 & Osteoporosis
BPC-157 is a synthetic amino acid sequence of the naturally available Body Protection Complex (BPC) present in human gastric juice. BPC-157 has shown promising results in the improvement of healing of numerous types of wounds, acceleration in the healing of skin burns, potential as an anti-inflammatory, protection and promote healing of the liver due to toxic stress, improvement in digestive functioning, protect intestinal organs, prevention of stomach ulcers, and repair tissues of GIT, tendons, ligaments, the brain, and bones.
The intramuscular administration of BPC-157 has shown promising results compared to the percutaneous injection of autologous bone marrow or autologous bone grafting (the effectiveness could also be seen after local administration). In the light of the suggested stomach significance for bone homeostasis, the possible relevance of BPC-157’s effect (local or intramuscular effectiveness, lack of unwanted effects) could be a basis for choice methods in the future management of healing impairment in humans and requires further investigation. The toxicological studies have shown that the peptide is nontoxic, even when applied in very high doses, which can exhibit promising effects for managing healing impairment in patients.
How AOD-9604 Help With Osteoporosis
AOD-9604 is a peptide that consists of a fragment of growth hormone without the proliferative effects, which has multiple effects on bone. The IGF-1 and direct cellular pathways are activated by AOD-9704 which is approximately 8% of the growth hormone molecule. AOD-9604 does not exhibit any effect on the IGF-1 pathway, which results in significant insulin resistance. This product has been utilized with increasing success in the treatment of local pain like osteoarthritis and tendonitis.
Some South Korean researchers have investigated the effects of AOD-9604 via intra-articular injections with or without hyaluronic acid in a collagenase-induced knee osteoarthritis rabbit model. Each injection was administered for 4-7 weeks after the first intra-articular collagenase injection. The degree of cartilage degeneration was then assessed using the morphological and histopathological findings. Eight weeks after the first collagenase injection, the degree of lameness was also observed.
The intra-articular AOD9604 injections using ultrasound guidance have been shown to enhance cartilage regeneration. The combination of AOD9604 and HA injections has shown to be more effective than AOD9604 or HA injection alone in the collagenase-induced knee OA rabbit model.
What is MOTS-c?
Thirty-seven known genes, including 22 tRNAs, 2rRNAs, and 13 polypeptide subunits of the electron transport chain complexes, are encoded by human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Recent research studies have revealed small open reading frames in the rRNA loci that can be transcribed and translated into short peptides called mitochondrial-derived peptides (MDPs), which exhibit biological activity. MOTS-c is a mitochondrial-encoded peptide with 16-aa’s encoded within the 12S rRNA locus of mtDNA in human cells.
MOTS-c can translocate into the nucleus in response to metabolic stress and regulation of adaptive nuclear gene expression. This allows the peptide to promote resistance to metabolic stress by upregulating the mitochondrial genome. Upregulating these genes encourages mitochondrial biogenesis. AMPK restores homeostasis by initiating catabolic processes for ATP production in case of energy deficits. In addition, research papers suggest that MOTS-c decreases insulin resistance and increases GLUT4 uptake in muscle. The peptide is mainly used for weight loss and energy. Sports performance athletes consistently use MOTS-c to enhance their performance. It also displays a good effect on longevity. The long-lived Japanese people have demonstrated a phenotypic expression and biological link between MOTS-c and an extended lifespan.
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