Ipamorelin Cost: What to Know in 2021

Ipamorelin Cost: What to Know in 2021

What Is Ipamorelin?

Originally developed by Novo Nordisk, Ipamorelin is a synthetic and a very selective agonist of the GHS receptor used for treating postoperative ileus. Ipamorelin was a derivative of the growth hormone-releasing peptide-1, which is itself derived from the natural protein hormone ghrelin. Ghrelin is often known as the hunger hormone. The stomach produces ghrelin, and its consumption stimulates the intake of food. The cells in the anterior pituitary gland are activated by Ghrelin, which increases the levels of growth hormone and neuropeptide Y. Ghrelin is of significant value in learning, reward cognition, memory, energy metabolism, and the sleep-wake cycle.

The ipamorelin prices are so affordable since they can be easily produced via recombinant techniques. It does not retain all the properties of ghrelin which makes it more selective than ghrelin and therefore more useful.

Peptide Sequence: Aib-His-D-2Nal-D-Phe-Lys

Molecular Formula: C38H49N9O5

Molecular Weight: 711.868 g/mol

Working of Ipamorelin

The GHS receptor, also called the ghrelin receptor, is highly expressed in the anterior pituitary gland and hypothalamus. The growth hormone is released from the anterior pituitary gland as the agonists bind to the GHS-R in the pituitary gland. Five most active GHS-R binding amino acids are present in Ipamorelin, making this short peptide the smallest known GHS-R agonist.

The administration of ipamorelin stimulates the release of neuropeptide Y, which leads to an increased appetite, decreased pain perception, and changes in energy metabolism.

Food Intake

The specific receptors required for stimulating the release of neuropeptide Y are situated in the hypothalamus, and the binding to the GHS-R triggers the release of this peptide.

The neuropeptide Y release is associated with the increase in food intake. Therefore, it mainly alters food preferences, thereby increasing the storage of energy as fat and resulting in the reduction of anxiety and stress.

Pain Perception

Research has shown the effectiveness of ipamorelin in particularly reducing neuropathic pain, i.e., the pain associated with nerve dysfunction and reducing visceral pain, i.e., the pain in the GI tract and organ pain. In addition, research studies in rats have indicated a reduction in pain perception by as much as 2-fold.

Bone Health

Some research studies in rats have shown the association of ipamorelin with the regulation of bone turnover and promoting increased mineralization of existing bones and the formation of new bones.

Research in rats has shown the effectiveness of ipamorelin, particularly in offsetting the effects of drugs like corticosteroids and certain medical conditions known to compromise bone health and increase bone formation by as much as four-fold. In addition, Ipamorelin has been shown to prevent the aberrant fat deposition seen with high corticosteroid levels and prevent bone loss. These findings are appealing as the ability to overcome the side effects of steroid treatment can permit for using higher or long-term doses in chronic inflammatory conditions like cancer and certain autoimmune diseases.

Heart Health

The relationship between ghrelin and heart health is a complicated one. However, the cell culture and the in vivo research in animal models have shown that ghrelin may help protect the heart after a heart attack or other cardiac damages. Furthermore, it is also observed that the ghrelin produced in minute amounts in the vascular system may help in reducing the scar formation and the successive hypertrophy of the heart. This can thereby put a stop to the long-term consequences of heart damage and also heart failure. Therefore, Ipamorelin is an attractive option for researchers since it can be used as a potential therapeutic agent in future applications.

Gender Differences in Ipamorelin Responses

Research studies conducted in mice, rats, and pigs suggest that the peptide shows objectively larger benefits in females than males. The relative lack of testosterone in females compared to males is supposed to be the reason behind the peptide’s more effectiveness in females. The lower levels of testosterone are associated with a decrease in muscle anabolism and lower bone mineral density. The research studies are ongoing to confirm any other reasons associated with the higher effectiveness of the peptide in females.

Preeclampsia, a condition in which a pregnant woman experiences potentially dangerous high blood pressure, is one of the primary drivers of preterm delivery and is very dangerous to treat. Research has shown the deficiency of ghrelin in patients affected with early-onset preeclampsia, and the administration of this peptide can promote blood vessel growth and reduce this problem.

Ipamorelin Costs

Ipamorelin is a highly selective GHS-R agonist and also versatile. It is inexpensive as compared to the other GH secretagogues and GHS-R receptors. The quantity required for an extremely robust research project will cost less than $100 per month which makes ipamorelin an exceptionally affordable peptide.

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

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Benefits of Peptides for Skin Health

Benefits of Peptides for Skin Health

Our skin not only serves as the essential protective layer to our internal organs but also contributes significantly to our self-esteem, our social interactions and the way people perceive us visually. The skin gets exposed to diverse external conditions such as environment and weather, chemical and biological products. There happens to be the natural biological progression of age which more often than not reflects adversely on our skin texture and appearance. Apart from aging, there are allergens and other damaging agents which significantly influence the health of our skin. They also happen to negatively impact self-esteem and general quality of life. To our advantage, there are many beneficial nutrients which help to address our daily health challenges and can provide great results. Peptides (short stretches of amino acids) happen to be one such relevant supplement worth considering. They are known for creating a positive impact towards fat metabolism, muscle building, enhancing cognitive power and sexual drive among other benefits. Peptides have also been observed to improve skin health if taken with proper regimen.
There is ample scope to improve health and achieve good skin by following a proper formulation of peptides. The knowledge of the different variants and their efficacy is of prime importance in this regard. The information can definitely help us progress towards our fitness and wellness goals and sustain a healthy lifestyle for ourselves.
We have discussed some of the relevant peptides which help to improve skin health in the following segments.

GHK Cu in Skin Care

The peptide, as the name indicates, contains copper and is also known as the copper peptide. It is useful to reduce imperfections like fine lines and wrinkles which are visible on the skin. The peptide further rejuvenates the skin and improves its natural elasticity and firmness and thus makes one look younger. The peptide also helps to stimulate growth of healthy hair. This produces voluminous locks of hair in women which can be used for different hair styling.
GHK Cu also sharpens vision and helps to maintain good eyesight. However it is recommended to monitor the internal levels of copper when the peptide is consumed. It will help to avoid any excessive copper related complications such as skin irritations. Most of the peptide formulations mention their exact composition as per dosage. This helps to monitor the uptake of copper and keep it under control.

MT 2 & Skin Health

MT2 or Melanotan 2 is a very popular molecule amongst skincare enthusiasts and specialists. People often use the drug as a protective agent against sun tanning instead of collagen mediated revitalization of tanned skin. Use of the molecule helps one to achieve the perfect beach tan without overdoing it or getting a sun burn. Hence MT2 helps to improve the complexion and enhance natural beauty and boosts self-esteem.

We need to be aware of the six different types of skin pigmentation when using MT2 .It works best for lighter skin tones especially those within grade 1-3. Hence people with fair to medium skin tones benefit from using the drug. People with darker skin complexion are advised to use alternate options.

IGF 1 – promote cellular growth & skin health

IGF 1 is also known as Somatomedin C. It is highly effective in reducing skin related concerns, promotes cellular growth, and enhances collagen repair. IGF 1 thus works as an anti-aging drug and gives a natural and almost flawless skin appearance. It further promotes muscle building and helps to maintain our figure in proper shape and hence is recommended to be included in the daily health regimen.

Skin Health Conclusions

Peptides are powerful drugs which can be extremely beneficial for boosting health. They cater to diverse physiological aspects like metabolism, muscle development and repair, sleep pattern, libido, brain function and even our skin health. They help to bring about a natural, glowing complexion and also address skin concerns. However, exercise, healthy lifestyle, proper food and taking care of different aspects of our collective well-being are important for peptides to give us the best possible results.

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

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Sleep – Why is it Important?

Sleep – Why is it Important?

The apparent components considered essential for body transformation and successful health are a healthy diet, a good exercise regime, a bit of yoga and meditation, and mindfulness. But that’s not right. There is a massive piece of the health and wellness puzzle that most people ignore: sleep. Yes, sleep is an essential element of health but is often the fundamental part of our wellness regime sacrificed due to the efforts that we put on to manage our busy lives.

Sleep is essential for all animals, even the tiny fruit flies. It probably helps lay down memories and allows the body to rest, recover and heal from exertion throughout the day. Sleep deprivation causes the impairment of memory, attention, and coordination, which is precisely similar to the effects of alcohol intoxication. Seizures and hallucinations can also occur if sleep is not restored. For thousands of years, torture and interrogation were done using the sleep deprivation technique.

Even mild sleep deprivation can hinder our focus and attentiveness, cause “brain fog,” and worsen mood disorders like depression and anxiety. Reducing it can significantly affect our health and wellness as well as overall performance during the day.

Despite not cutting out the sleeping time, many people complain of restless, poor, or interrupted sleep due to different medical conditions such as aging and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea, poor sleep hygiene, etc. During aging, changes occur in our sleeping cycles, with less time spent in “deep sleeping” or REM sleep probably due to changes in different hormone levels, gradually reducing through middle age. Some of the well-founded examples are as follows:

During adolescence, the secretion of growth hormone is at its peak that begins to decline exponentially from young adulthood to middle age and slowly continues to drop in old age. Approximately after one hour of sleep onset, the growth hormone pulses and then declines gradually as the sleep progresses.

Melatonin is associated with our Body Clock, i.e., our brain’s Circadian Rhythm (night-day cycle). It increases at night approximately two hours before the beginning of normal sleep and is responsible for sleepiness. The secretion of evening melatonin reduces with aging and may be associated with a significant amount of poor sleeping.

The adrenal gland secretes cortisol, a stress hormone, which increases arousal and helps the body deal with short-term stress situations. Cortisol is also associated with the Circadian rhythm and increased cortisol in the morning leads to sleeplessness. Chronically increased cortisol levels may be due to increased chronic stress, which adversely affects many body systems and hinders sleep.

With aging, the sleep of older adults is associated with changes in sex hormones. The testosterone levels in men decrease progressively after 30 years of age, which causes more fragmented sleep. The estrogen levels drop, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increase in women significantly during perimenopause and can cause difficulty in falling and staying asleep.

Peptide Solutions for a good sleeping

Peptides like GHRPs, CJC-1295/ Ipamorelin helps the pituitary in increasing the secretion of growth hormone and improve the quality of sleeping when taken at night.

SARMS peptides mimic the effects of the male hormone testosterone on receptors, improve sleeping quality, and improve mood and libido.

Some other novel peptides, such as Delta-Sleep-Inducing Peptide (DSIP), help with sleep regulation over the long term.

CBD is a constituent of medicinal cannabis can also be used as a beneficial plant-based medicine to help some people have a better sleep.

Temazepam and other benzodiazepines are sleeping pills that can be beneficial in some short-term situations of insomnia but are not significant for long-term usage as they result in independence and are often needed in higher doses as the tolerance develops over time.

Numerous simple measures can be taken for Good Sleep Hygiene:

– After 2 pm caffeine (tea/coffee/cola beverages/energy drinks) should be avoided
– Alcohol seems to help fall asleep, but it distorts the sleep architecture and worsens obstructive sleep apnoea, so it should be avoided at night.
– Have A regular “sleep routine,” and a fixed bedtime and wake time should be followed every day.
– Exercising during the daytime, especially in sunlight, can help in optimizing the melatonin secretion and Circadian Rhythm.
– The light of the computer and smartphone screens can affect melatonin secretion, and such activities keep the mind too active for sleep, so they should be avoided for 1-2 hours before sleep.
– Bedroom should be kept dark, and a cool room temperature should be maintained.

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

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AOD 9604 – The Fat Burning Peptide

AOD 9604 – The Fat Burning Peptide

Peptide AOD 9604, an anti-obesity drug, is also known as the fat-burning peptide, and this peptide has helped many people fight off fat.

The peptide was initially made as a cure for obesity, and recently it has become more popular, taking into consideration its natural potential to become a slimming solution.

What this peptide actually does is that it helps in burning fat and also in increasing the weight loss metabolism of the body, thereby helping us to get skinny.

The Science Behind Peptide AOD 9604

AOD9604 is a modified form of the Amino Acid 176-191 of the Growth Hormone Polypeptide.

This peptide was made to help people who are trying to lose weight by helping them burn body fat, so it is important to understand the working of this peptide.

Working of Peptide AOD 9604

The peptide is given to the body via injections which helps in stimulating the pituitary gland. This working is somewhat similar to the working of the Growth Hormone; that is, it mimics how natural growth hormones regulate the body’s fat metabolism.

The advantage of this peptide is that it does not exhibit any harmful effects on blood sugar.

The AOD9604 is one of the rare peptides that has received approval from the FDA among the supplements found in the United States.

Potentials of AOD 9604:
– It speeds up the fat-burning process
– Perk up anabolism
– Lessens any catabolic effects

Clinical Researches

The countless researches on AOD 9604 peptides have demonstrated that it helps in reducing the body fat located in the mid-abdominal area of people who are considered overweight, obese, or have average body structures.

The fat-reducing effects of Peptide AOD9604 were found to be evident in the researchers from Monash University. It was initially developed in the 1990s by Frank Ng.

The main intention was to find an anti-obesity drug that would help burn the body fats, making sure that no muscles would be built up along the process.

According to clinical researches, Peptide AOD 9604 has been found to:
– Regulate the body’s metabolism
– Stimulate the body’s natural process of burning fat
– Trigger release of fat from obese fat cells
– Decrease the growth of new fat surrounding the fat cells, which helps the body gain more significant weight loss.
And the best part of all these effects is that the peptide does not harm the appetite or the blood sugar.

Peptide AOD 9604 has also shown beneficial effects in hypercholesterolemia, bone and cartilage repair, and osteoarthritis.

At present, AOD 9604 is known to exhibit an excellent safety profile and recently obtained Human GRAS status in the USA.

The AOD 9604 works perfectly as the human growth hormone (HGH) is known to exhibit fat loss properties. AOD 9604 is a peptide fragment of the C-terminus of hGH, which presents the fat-reducing activity of hGH without exhibiting any harmful effects.

To study the undesired effects connected with hGH treatment that increase insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, six randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were performed with AOD 9604. The presence of anti-AOD 9604 antibodies was then checked by analyzing the blood samples. No anti-AOD 9604 antibodies were detected in the patients selected for the study, which showed that the peptide does not affect carbohydrate metabolism, thereby showing that the peptide has safe, sound, and tolerable effects.

To ensure the safety of this peptide, the protocols for taking AOD 9604 must be well understood.

For its content & potency, subcutaneous injectables should only be at 1200mcg/ml, provided in a 5ml vial. The suggested dosage for the injectable is 0.25ml per day when taken for 20 days. But the exact right dosage cycle of the peptide for the body should be decided after consulting a doctor.

Benefits of AOD 9604

In addition to the super impressive potential to burn fat and the advantage of showing no adverse effects on blood sugar or any tissue growth and also no increase in the appetite, AOD 9604 can:

– Increase the burning of body calories
– Trigger fat release while boosting the metabolism
– Help in bone and cartilage repair

The strong fat-burning potential of AOD 9604 does not create any overheating and even stimulates lipolysis in the body.

It also stimulates lipogenesis, i.e., it transforms non-fat food materials into body fat.

Usually, the effects of AOD 9604 are observed after 12 weeks of administration.

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

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What is Adipotide?

What is Adipotide?

Adipotide is a popular peptidomimetic compound having the molecular sequence of CKGGRAKDC-GG-D(KLAKLAK)2. The molecule mediates selective apoptosis of blood vessels, which supply adipocytes, thus causing weight loss in rhesus monkeys and mice. White adipocytes are formed due to excess energy consumption compared to utilization. The targeted blood vessels upon adipotide treatment undergo atrophy (shrinkage), leading to apoptosis (cell death), hence preventing blood supply to the white fat cells. Therefore, the adipocytes suffer from an ischemic injury due to oxygen and nutrient deprivation and finally undergo apoptotic cell death.
The stereochemical structure of the molecule allows it to bind to two cognate receptors (prohibitin and ANXA-2) found exclusively on blood vessels of white adipose tissues. High tissue specificity prevents it from targeting the brown fat tissues present in the body. Thus it does not influence adaptive brown fat thermogenesis, which is crucial, especially for babies who can conserve only limited body heat. The body surface area to volume ratio promotes high rates of heat loss for them.

Adipotide & Obesity

In 2008, epidemiological studies revealed that 33.9% of the total American adult population suffered from obesity. Obesity results from an increase in excess adipose mass. Improved lean body mass can also cause an increase in weight but does not result in obesity. Obesity results in higher chances of morbidity and mortality. It is measured by the BMI (Body Mass Index), anthropometry (using skinfold thickness), and densitometry. BMI of 30 serves as a cut-off for obesity. Various health issues such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, NIDDM (Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus), cerebrovascular accidents, myocardial infarction, and cancers are associated with obesity. Interestingly, morbidity is determined by the distribution of adipose tissues and the waist-to-hip ratio of a person. Abdominal fat is more harmful than in lower limbs or buttocks because of its higher lipolytic function.
Adipose tissue comprises lipid storing adipocytes (cells) and vascular macrophages, and preadipocytes. An increase in adipose mass is caused by excess lipid deposition in adipocytes leading to hypertrophy and subsequent hyperplasia. It further triggers the infiltration of macrophages and conversion of preadipocytes to adipocytes. The blood supply also promotes this microenvironment. Adipotide targets this blood supply, thereby causing irreversible ischemic injury and apoptosis of adipose tissues.

Selected Research Studies

In 2004 a study named “Reversal of obesity by targeted ablation of adipose tissue” by Mikhail G Kolonin et al. observed that targeted apoptosis in the vascular bed of white adipose tissue could be used to treat obesity. Obese mice were administered a peptide CKGGRAKDC which binds to a multifunctional vascular membrane protein called prohibitin. It causes a decrease in adipose tissue mass and normalization of overall metabolic processes without any significant side effects. Thus the peptide might be helpful against human obesity as human beings also express prohibitin in their white adipose tissue vasculature.
Translation of anti-obesity therapies developed in rodents into therapeutics for humans is challenging due to their biological differences. Hence subjects of research should ideally also be primates. In 2011, research entitled “A Peptidomimetic Targeting White Fat Causes Weight Loss and Improved Insulin Resistance in Obese Monkeys” by Kirstin F. Barnhart et al. established the ligand-directed peptidomimetic named Adipotide (with sequence CKGGRAKDC-GG-D(KLAKLAK)2 ) as a prototype of anti-obesity peptides in obese monkeys. Adipotide was observed to cause apoptosis in the vasculature of white adipose tissue leading to rapid weight loss, improved insulin and renal function in the monkeys.
In 2011, Fernanda I. Staquicinia et al. analyzed vascular marker(s) for different organs in their work entitled “Vascular ligand-receptor mapping by direct combinatorial selection in cancer patients.” The survey included 2.35 × 106 motifs from a peptide library in cancer patients for uncovering ligand-receptors specific to particular vascular beds. Among the 4 native ligand-receptors found, two were native ligand-receptors (cathepsin B/apolipoprotein E3 and integrin α4/annexin A4) that existed across tissues. The other two had tissue-specific prevalence – prohibitin/annexin A2 exclusive for the white adipose tissue and RAGE/leukocyte proteinase-3 found in bone metastases. Thus prohibitin and ANXA-2 were found to be receptors specific for vasculature of white fat tissue.

Adipotide Conclusions

Adipotide is a peptidomimetic compound that exhibits pro-apoptotic and lipolytic properties allowing it to act as an anti-obesity peptide. Researches have shown that its mode of action includes selective apoptosis of the vasculature of the white adipose tissue. Thus, the blood supply to adipocytes gets compromised, leading to the adipocytes’ irreversible ischemic injury and apoptotic death. The death of white fat cells causes an overall reduction in adipose mass. Hence the peptide has the potential to be used for the treatment of human obesity.

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

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Cosmetic Peptides

Cosmetic Peptides

Cosmetic peptides are short sequences of amino acids which serve as building blocks of proteins. Their source can be natural as well as synthetic. Irrespective of the origin, peptides are biologically active and mediate various physiological effects, such as regulating metabolism, developing muscles, improving cognitive function, and increasing sex drive.

Peptides function as interesting cosmeceutical ingredients

Peptides are often a part of the active ingredients of various beauty products. Hence their function, chemical stability, and bioavailability are under stringent scrutiny. Novel physical and chemical techniques are under evaluation to improve the efficacy of cosmetic peptides.

The stability and enhanced bioavailability of the peptides in drugs and cosmetics are of significant concern. The scientific community has coined the term “cosmeceuticals” to refer to the group of peptides that find increasing applications as ingredients of various cosmetic products. Researchers are actively working on means to improve the bioavailability and stability of such peptides. Interestingly, there are more than two hundred different research articles on various peptides, but only a few of them focus on the issue of their active permeation into the body.

Peptides have long been used as effective carriers for larger molecules in the body. Interestingly, now they are actively used in cosmetics to improve various cellular processes like skin cell rejuvenation and growth of hair follicles. RTTKS is one of the well-known molecules. However, there is minimal scientific data about the testing of such peptides in the cosmetic field. Many of the peptides used in cosmeceutical formulations have been pharmacologically tested. However, they lack relevant and sufficient information about their bioavailability and stability. These data are especially relevant since the formulations are directly applied ectopically on the human skin. Various pharmacologically proven methods, such as transdermal administration, have been used to enhance the bioavailability of peptide formulations by the beauty industry.

Means to improve the stability and skin pervasion of peptides

Scientific reviews have highlighted two essential methods of improving the skin pervasion of peptides. The first route is through the Stratum corneum, and the second one is via increased peptide stability for dermal enzymes. As per research findings, either physical or chemical enhancers can be used to enhance peptide bioavailability. Physical enhancers include ultrasonic waves, microneedles, and low electric current. Free fatty acids, alcohols, or surfactants are among the chemical enhancers used. There are additional chemicals such as hydrogels, liposomes, microemulsions, nanostructured lipids, and polymer-based techniques.

Both the physical and chemical methods were developed to enhance transdermal delivery and the bioavailability of the molecules in general. They mediate their function by one of the three mechanisms:

  1. Disturbance of Stratum corneumlipid layer.
  2. Co-enhancer or solvent-mediated improved drug partitioning into Stratum corneumlayer.
  3. Inter-cellular protein interference.

Future of active peptide: microneedle innovation under the spotlight

The microneedle method has been considered an innovative technique for intradermal delivery of peptide formulations. It is used to puncture the external skin layers and allow permeation and absorption of the active ingredients. Microneedles help to prick the upper layers of skin subaerially and are very helpful in the delivery of hydrophilic molecules. Microneedle rollers, as well as 3D printed microneedle eye patches, are also available. These have been tested on mice and human skin with significant results. Self-dissolving microneedles have also shown beneficial outcomes.

Chemical degradation of active peptides poses a major challenge.

As per researchers, peptide stability in cosmetic formulations would continue to be a challenge. This is due to a significant increase in peptide use in the formulations and specific skin permeability and metabolic improvement objectives. Chemical degradation of peptides occurs due to the abundance of proteases on the skin, which target and break down the peptides. Hence the bioavailability of the peptides gets compromised. Often covalent bond-mediated synthetic modifications of peptides improve their skin permeability. However, these modifications make them more prone to dermal protease-mediated degradation. Interestingly, new chemical changes have been useful in improving the dermal stability of the molecules. A few noted ones include peptide backbone modifications, the use of cyclic peptides, ascorbic acid conjugations, and peptide conjugations.

Thus, with increased peptides applications in the beauty industry, novel physical and chemical methods have been developed to improve their dermal stability. There are continuous developments in these methods, which provide impetus to novel and innovative technological solutions to improve products.

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

Cosmetic Peptides

Cosmetic peptides are short sequences of amino acids which serve as building blocks of proteins. Their source can be natural as well as synthetic. Irrespective of the origin, peptides are biologically active and mediate various physiological effects, such as...

Benefits of Peptides for Skin Health

Our skin not only serves as the essential protective layer to our internal organs but also contributes significantly to our self-esteem, our social interactions and the way people perceive us visually. The skin gets exposed to diverse external conditions such as...

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