DSIP – What is it? How does it work?

DSIP – What is it? How does it work?

Delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) is an endogenous neuropeptide that was first isolated from rabbits by Monnier and associates in 1964. It helps to induce delta EEG sleep. It has a diverse influence on the central nervous system, regulates circadian rhythm, sleeping patterns, regulates the endocrine system, and alleviates hypothermia. DSIP further protects against oxidative stress and reduces the body’s response to acute stress.
Research suggests substance P, beta-endorphin, and cortisol levels in the hypothalamus and blood plasma show alterations. DSIP induces changes in other peptides which mediate the acute and long-term stress coping effect.
The peptide further regulates the opioid-peptidergic systems along with morphine. It thus helps in dealing with opioid withdrawal in cases of chronic pain.

What have Research Studies Shown?

Scientific research has revealed the following functions of DSIP.
-Regulation of sleep
-Betterment of REM sleep
-Suppression of paradoxical sleep
-Overcome daytime sedation
-Modification of thermogenesis, heart rate, blood pressure, pain threshold
-Alteration of substance P, beta-endorphin, and cortisol levels
-Regulation of diurnal and circadian rhythmicity
-Increase in LH secretion
-Reduction of Chronic Pain

DSIP for Sleep and Circadian Rhythm

The peptide exists in both free and bound forms in the hypothalamus, limbic system, and pituitary gland. It triggers hypothalamic neural circuitry, increasing LH during sleep, and can thus help in chronic insomnia.
A study of 14 chronic insomniacs was done to determine the intermediate effect of the peptide on sleep and daytime performance. DSIP was administered under placebo-controlled, double-blind conditions for seven successive nights.
Polysomnograms were captured for placebo baseline, beginning and end of DSIP treatment, and one placebo post-treatment night. The daytime psychological state and mental performance were extensively analyzed before and after 6 DSIP injections. They were each given IV DSIP 25 nmol/kg, and each subject reported improved sleep quality. The treatment substantially enhanced night sleep with the first and additionally with repeated doses. These effects were maintained for the first post-treatment (placebo) night. The efficiency of night sleep and daytime rest became equivalent to the levels of normal controls. Alertness and performance in the daytime also increased tremendously.
The work demonstrates the efficacy of DSIP for the improvement of impaired sleep and daytime functions as well. DSIP also helps in narcolepsy by reducing the number of sleep attacks during the day and enhancing REM sleep. The peptide was repeatedly administered to a 35-year-old male narcoleptic. Efficacy was evaluated by self-report, performance tests, multiple sleep latency tests, and all-night polysomnography. DSIP decreased the frequency of sleep attacks and improved activity, alertness, and performance during the daytime. DSIP reduced the sleep period with the enhancement of REM sleep. The findings prove the peptide to accentuate circadian and ultradian rhythms of DSIP.

Dsip and Opioid Withdrawal

DISP helps in dealing with opioid withdrawal due to its agonistic activity at opioid receptors. Several animal studies conducted by Tissot regarding DISP have shown that morphine, alcohol, pentobarbital, and DSIP, when injected directly into the bulbo-mesencephalon-thalamic recruiting system, triggers slow-wave sleep with numerous spindles reversed by naloxone. The peptide was introduced intravenously to 107 in patients with symptoms of alcohol (n = 47) and opiate (n = 60) withdrawal. Both physicians and nursing staff clinically evaluated the effect of DISP, and 97% of patients, after two weeks, showed significant disappearance of clinical symptoms and signs associated with withdrawal. It took longer to control the anxiety. Patients reported good tolerance to the DSIP treatment aside from a few cases of headaches.

DSIP for Chronic Pain and Depression

DSIP is also evaluated for use in chronic pain and/or depression. DSIP has been shown to significantly reduce pain levels and depressive states when administered. Due to the findings of DISP modulating endogenous opioid-peptidergic systems and significant effects on circadian rhythms and cortisol levels, a study was conducted to determine if there was any potential for alleviating chronic pronounced pain episodes.
The study is investigating the therapeutic effect on seven patients with migraine episodes and vasomotor headaches, chronic tinnitus, psychogenic panic attacks, and depressive states. The baseline anamnestic values were statistically compared with the katamnestic control period. DSIP remarkably lowered the pain levels of 6 out of 7 patients after intravenous administration on five consecutive days followed by five injections every 48-72 hours. A significant decrease in depressive states was also observed.

Other Indications

-Acts as a stress limiting factor
-Normalizes blood pressure and myocardial contraction
-Enhances the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in rat mitochondria in vitro
-Mediates antioxidant effects

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

Role of GHK-Cu in the Improvement of the Growth of Hair Follicle

GHK-Cu is formed as a result of the affinity of the human peptide, GHK (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine) to the Cu(2+) (Copper 2+). In the human body, the GHK-Cu has varied roles like collagen stimulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects, enhancing the...

How does Epitalon reverse aging?

Epitalon is a peptide that has been majorly studied with respect to its anti-aging influence. The findings have been restricted to animal studies. Hence the efficacy of the molecule in humans is subject to conjecture. The molecule has been shown to reverse the aging...

Unique Effect of Sermorelin on Sleep

What is Sermorelin? Sermorelin is a synthetic analog of the naturally occurring growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). GHRH is a 44 amino acid long peptide, and Sermorelin comprises the first 29 amino acids. The shortened peptide is biologically potent like the...
Melanotan I – What is it? How does it work?

Melanotan I – What is it? How does it work?

Melanotan I, also known as afamelanotide, is a synthetic melanocyte-stimulating hormone (a-MSH) that induces skin pigmentation through melanin production and melanogenesis. Melanin prevents damage to skin cells by absorbing, reflecting, and refracting light. Melanotan I reduces the damage of sunlight to transformed skin cells exposed to ultraviolet rays, thus producing black protective melanin.
It is also used to achieve erections in men with erectile dysfunction (ED), rosacea, fibromyalgia, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses. There is also a concern that Melanotan could be dangerous when used as a subcutaneous injection.

Formula: C78H111N21O19
Structure: Ac-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Nle-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val-NH2

Melanothan I – Administration

Method of administration: subcutaneous injection into the fleshy part of the body, usually the stomach or abdominal area. Melanotan I can also be given by nasal spray. There is a concern that Melanotan could be dangerous when used as a subcutaneous injection. Before using Melanotan I, be sure to use a clean, sterile syringe. Before using the syringe, clean the skin area with alcohol.

Melanothan I – Dosage

Dosage Amount: 250mcg (0.25mg) – 2000mcg (2mg)
Dosage Frequency: Once daily
After using Melanotan I, it may take weeks or months to see the effect of the desired skin tone.

Melanothan I – Mechanism of Action

Melanin is similar to a substance called “methanotrophic” in our body. This hormone increases the production of pigments that darken the skin.
After the injection of Melanotan I, it works by replicating alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in your body. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone binds to melanocortin receptors and induces the production of melanin in skin cells. Therefore, the more melanin produced by skin cells, the darker the skin will appear. Some research studies have shown that Melanotan1 can be safely combined with UVB light or sunlight and appears to have a synergistic effect on the response of tanning to light.

Melanotan 2 is another melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) analog. It is believed to produce melanocytes and other hormones in the pituitary gland. Melanotan 2 is a round version of afamelanotide. Melanotan 2 is an excellent tool to prevent skin problems. Increase the amount of melanin in the body and darken the skin. Compared with Melanotan1, Melanotan2 is more effective and targets melanocortin receptors. It has an amino acid cycle that separates it from other peptides, and research shows that this, in turn, can promote better absorption.
However, some research studies have shown that Melanotan I stays in the body longer than Melanotan II before being broken down by enzymes. Compared to Melanotan I, Melanotan II connects to a wider range of receptors and has a shorter lifespan in your body. It can also cross the blood-brain barrier, causing side effects such as loss of appetite, sexual dysfunction, and fatigue. Melanotan II is not currently used to treat any diseases.

Applications of Melanotan I

– Melanotan I is used to preventing phototoxicity in people with erythropoietic protoporphyria, a type of ferrochelatase deficiency. People with this disease will feel pain when the skin is exposed to sunlight and artificial lighting. Due to abnormally low levels of this enzyme, excess protoporphyrin can accumulate in the bone marrow, plasma, and red blood cells.
– Melanotan I is also used to enhance skin tanning for certain light-related skin indications, a preventive treatment for multiple light-affected skin diseases, and a possible skin cancer preventive agent.

Melanothan I – Benefits

– Melanotan 1 can be safely combined with UVB light or sunlight. It seems to have a synergistic effect on the response of tanning to light.
– Reduced exposure to ultraviolet light, seen in sunlight and light used in indoor tanning beds, reduces the risk of skin cancer or other possible types of skin issues.
– If necessary, Melanotan I will darken and tan skin.

Melanothan I – Side Effects

– The biggest concern about tanning injections is that they are not regulated. Without proper supervision, there is no guarantee that the products used will be properly marked. Also, the long-term effects of Melanotan I are mostly unknown.
– The most common side effects of Melanotan I are usually temporary and include nausea, redness of the skin, loss of appetite, lethargy, or fatigue.
– When given as an injection: When given as an injection, Melanotan can be dangerous. It can cause nausea, stomach cramps, decreased appetite, flushing, tiredness, yawning, darkening of the skin, spontaneous penile erection, and other side effects. In some people, especially those with lighter skin, changes in the shape of moles, new moles, and skin cancer occur in people using Melanotan.
– When sprayed into the nose: There is not enough reliable information to know if Melanotan is safe or what side effects it may have.

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

Role of GHK-Cu in the Improvement of the Growth of Hair Follicle

GHK-Cu is formed as a result of the affinity of the human peptide, GHK (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine) to the Cu(2+) (Copper 2+). In the human body, the GHK-Cu has varied roles like collagen stimulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects, enhancing the...

How does Epitalon reverse aging?

Epitalon is a peptide that has been majorly studied with respect to its anti-aging influence. The findings have been restricted to animal studies. Hence the efficacy of the molecule in humans is subject to conjecture. The molecule has been shown to reverse the aging...

Unique Effect of Sermorelin on Sleep

What is Sermorelin? Sermorelin is a synthetic analog of the naturally occurring growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). GHRH is a 44 amino acid long peptide, and Sermorelin comprises the first 29 amino acids. The shortened peptide is biologically potent like the...
HGH Benefits & Effects: How HGH Affects the Body

HGH Benefits & Effects: How HGH Affects the Body

Studies on HGH have revealed that it might be the actual fountain of youth the world has been searching for. In the meanwhile, the hormone continues to provide the edge to the best of world athletes. Research has revealed that the appropriate use of peptides induces the pituitary gland to secrete more of the human growth hormone. However, the use of such peptides has not been recommended for human use yet. Enhanced HGH levels improve performance and delay the onset of aging.

What Is HGH?

Human growth hormone, also known as HGH or Somatotropin, is a peptide hormone. It consists of a chain of 191 amino acids produced naturally in the human body and promotes cellular regeneration, reproduction, and growth. HGH levels decrease in the body with age, thereby causing many older men to seek therapy that restores the benefits of HGH.

What Does HGH Do Inside The Human Body?

HGH primarily functions as an anabolic hormone. It binds to cognate receptors on the cellular surface and promotes the building of body tissues. A quality peptide which either stimulates HGH production or mimics the hormone can usher in a range of physiological benefits.
Regulation of body weightFrag 176-191, comprising of the last 25 peptides in the HGH chain, promotes fat breakdown and suppression of new fat synthesis. Meanwhile, CJC 1295 w/o DAC is a popular compound that promotes improved HGH production.
Encourages Better SleepDSIP, Epitalon, Selank improves sleep cycle and pattern by controlling both the anxiety that can lead to insomnia and the imbalances in body chemistry due to unstable sleep schedules (such as those experienced by shift workers).
Improves Mood – Aside from anxiety, proper HGH levels help provide the chemical homeostasis in our body. This natural hormone cycle influences our brains, helps to improve temperament and provides a positive, energized outlook.
PT-141, through the HGH axis, addresses issues of low libido for many. Studies reveal that it can help treat erectile dysfunction, trigger a higher libido in both men and women, and possibly even act as an aphrodisiac.

Would Your Research Realize The Benefits Of HGH?

The physiological benefits of HGH are very well established. Hence studies of HGH demand researchers to use quality peptides to ensure the output is of acceptable standards as well.

Physiological effects

We have enlisted some of the diverse spectra of physiological benefits which HGH has on our bodies.
Enhances Muscle Strength
Promotes Healing
Promotes the regeneration of bone and muscle tissue
Aids in Control Of Weight And Body Fat
Reduces Risk of Heart Disease
Improves Fat Reduction
Muscle Gain
Faster Recovery Times
Brings about a better Immune System Function
Improves bone mineralization and thus establishes a higher bone density
Improved Cellular Repair for Skin and Organs
Stimulates rapid protein synthesis

Side effects

HGH administration releases the hormone from its natural biological control. This alters the hormone cycle more drastically, thereby affecting the response of the body tissues to the peptide. This is referred to as square-wave physiology as opposed to natural crest and trough response to the hormone. High HGH also suppresses feedback mechanisms and disrupts the natural 24-hour pattern of the peptide.
Hence, the use of peptides to stimulate the release of HGH is considered to be a safe alternative. The use of Sermorelin acetate overcomes these challenges as physiological feedback mechanisms of HGH secretion regulate it. The peptide only mediates an increase in the hormone set-point. HGH and many other hormones exhibit the phenomenon of tachyphylaxis in which excess ligand inhibits the cognate receptors in the body over the course of time and eventually becomes less effective. Thus, the body requires to be put on a drug holiday to overcome tachyphylaxis, and the peptide benefits are transiently lost. Sermorelin does not get influenced by tachyphylaxis. Rather, the use of Sermorelin improves the physiological concentration of cognate receptors through an unknown mechanism.
HGH thus plays a gamut of diverse roles in the human body, from bone and muscle development, general growth, fat metabolism, improvement of sleep, and cognitive power to the enhancement of libido. There is a decrease in HGH levels in the body with age. This often causes a change in the general metabolism of the body. Hence, researchers look for different ways to enhance the hormone levels in the body, which prolongs the hormone’s physiological benefits and maintains the natural hormone cycle in the body.

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

Role of GHK-Cu in the Improvement of the Growth of Hair Follicle

GHK-Cu is formed as a result of the affinity of the human peptide, GHK (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine) to the Cu(2+) (Copper 2+). In the human body, the GHK-Cu has varied roles like collagen stimulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects, enhancing the...

How does Epitalon reverse aging?

Epitalon is a peptide that has been majorly studied with respect to its anti-aging influence. The findings have been restricted to animal studies. Hence the efficacy of the molecule in humans is subject to conjecture. The molecule has been shown to reverse the aging...

Unique Effect of Sermorelin on Sleep

What is Sermorelin? Sermorelin is a synthetic analog of the naturally occurring growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). GHRH is a 44 amino acid long peptide, and Sermorelin comprises the first 29 amino acids. The shortened peptide is biologically potent like the...
What is GHK-Cu (Copper Peptide), and How Does it Work?

What is GHK-Cu (Copper Peptide), and How Does it Work?

What is GHK-Cu?

First identified in human plasma, GHK-Cu is a naturally prevalent copper complex in body fluids such as saliva and urine. Copper peptides are small, naturally occurring protein fragments with a high affinity for copper ions, critical to normal body function. GHK-Cu plays essential functions, including wound healing, attracting immune cells, anti-inflammatory effects, stimulating collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis in skin fibroblasts, and promoting angiogenesis.
The peptide is secreted as a response to tissue injury and helps to protect tissues from inflammatory damage. It promotes tissue remodeling and regeneration post-injury. Further, it plays a significant role in signaling tissue remodeling, which removes damaged/scarred tissue. However, there is a reduction in its concentration with age and thus increases inflammation, cancerous activity, and tissue destruction.

Mechanism of Action

GHK-Cu influences various pathways through its peptide sequence and copper. It attracts mast cells and macrophages at the site of injury to release proteins that stimulate tissue repair. Primarily, it increases collagen, elastin, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and decorin in fibroblasts stimulates metalloproteases and protease inhibitors to remove damaged tissue proteins, and decreases secretion of TGF-beta from fibroblasts as TGF-beta induces scar formation.
GHK-Cu promotes collagen production by chondrocytes leading to bone growth and formation. It also provides copper for angiogenesis in tissues. The peptide improves differentiation and proliferation of axons within neurons, blocks ferritin channels, and releases oxidative iron after tissue injury, thus blocking iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation that occurs after injury. Therefore, copper-peptide-induced tissue repair works for skin, hair follicles, stomach lining, intestinal lining, bone tissue, hooves, and fingernails.

What have Research Studies Shown?

Scientific work has shown that GHK-Cu affects the following:
-Infection control
-Wound healing
-Hair growth restoration
-Facial cosmetic use
-Cognitive health
-Anti-cancer effects

GHK-Cu in Research (Expanded)

Wound Healing and Infection Control
The peptide causes better wound contraction, faster granular tissue development, and improved angiogenesis to reinstate blood flow to damaged tissue. Systemic injection of the peptide promotes healing, and its introduction into the muscle helps repair at distant sites. The peptide could potentially be a valuable therapy given to individuals after surgery to promote wound healing, pain alleviation, and prevent infection.

Anti-Inflammatory Response
A study was performed on the peptide and its interaction with TNF-alpha along with pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 in human fibroblasts. The research showed that GHK-Cu was significantly reduced inflammation. Hence the peptide can be used for both systemic injections as well as topically applied therapy in the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions such as psoriasis. It was also found to control erythema caused by UV sunlight.

Hair Growth Restoration
The peptide has been found to have the same efficacy as 5% minoxidil, one of the most commonly used medications in the restoration of hair growth.
A commercial product known as GraftCyte, which contains GHK-Cu, was clinically proven to improve the outcome of hair transplantation surgeries and healing. It was proven to promote collagen production within hair follicles.

Facial Cosmetic
It is an active ingredient of anti-aging creams as it causes skin firming, anti-aging, and anti-wrinkle activity. One of the clinical studies proved GHK-Cu to be better than vitamin C and retinoic acid in increasing collagen in photoaged skin.

Cognitive Health
The peptide promotes cognitive health. It increases the migration of hematogenous cells into collagen tubes, produces nerve growth factors, increases the expression of integrins, and enhances the regeneration rate of myelinated nerve fibers. Schwann cells and axon count were also found to be increased.
A human gene expression study was performed to determine the effects of the peptide in gene expression as the peptide declines with age. It was found to induce a 50% or greater chance of expression in 31.2% of human genes affecting multiple biochemical pathways in organs and tissues, including the nervous system. Thus, treatment by GHK-Cu could impact the expression of fundamental proteins in your body.

Anti-Cancer
GHK-Cu has been recommended for the treatment of metastatic cancer. Gene control is an exciting domain of medicine, especially in cancer therapy. Higher tissue copper keeps the cells younger, and GHK-Cu helps to mediate this effect.

Lungs
The peptide has been found to protect the lungs from acute injury and fibrosis. It prevents damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and inflammatory cytokines.
Studies have also shown that treatment of GHK-Cu reduces inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial thickness in subjects with pulmonary fibrosis. It significantly enhances collagen deposition, imbalances in lung tissue and reduces TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the alveolar fluid. Thus, the peptide shows a strong indication for the treatment of a variety of lung diseases.

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

Role of GHK-Cu in the Improvement of the Growth of Hair Follicle

GHK-Cu is formed as a result of the affinity of the human peptide, GHK (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine) to the Cu(2+) (Copper 2+). In the human body, the GHK-Cu has varied roles like collagen stimulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects, enhancing the...

How does Epitalon reverse aging?

Epitalon is a peptide that has been majorly studied with respect to its anti-aging influence. The findings have been restricted to animal studies. Hence the efficacy of the molecule in humans is subject to conjecture. The molecule has been shown to reverse the aging...

Unique Effect of Sermorelin on Sleep

What is Sermorelin? Sermorelin is a synthetic analog of the naturally occurring growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). GHRH is a 44 amino acid long peptide, and Sermorelin comprises the first 29 amino acids. The shortened peptide is biologically potent like the...
What is a Peptide? – Introduction to Peptides

What is a Peptide? – Introduction to Peptides

What is a Peptide?

A peptide is a biologically occurring chemical compound that consists of two or more amino acids connected via peptide bonds. A peptide bond is a covalent bond formed between two amino acids when a carboxyl group or C-terminus of one amino acid reacts with the amino group or N-terminus of another amino acid in a condensation molecule of water is released during this reaction. The resulting bond is the CO-NH bond which forms a peptide or amide molecule. In the same way, peptide bonds are amide bonds.

The word peptide comes from the Greek word meaning “to digest.” They are an important part of nature and biochemistry, and thousands of peptides occur naturally inside the human body and in animals. In addition to this, new peptides are being discovered and synthesized regularly in the laboratory as well. Indeed, this discovery and innovation in the study of peptides exhibit great promise for the future in the fields of pharmaceutical and health development.

How Are They Formed?

Peptides are formed both via natural processes within the body and via synthetic processes inside the laboratory. Some peptides are manufactured organically by our body, like ribosomal and nonribosomal peptides. Inside a laboratory, modern peptide synthesis processes can make a virtually boundless number of peptides using peptide synthesis techniques like solid-phase peptide synthesis or liquid phase peptide synthesis. Solid-phase peptide synthesis is the standard peptide synthesis process used today, while liquid phase peptide synthesis has some advantages.

Peptide Formation

Vincent du Vigneaud synthesized the first oxytocin, which is a polypeptide that was synthesized in 1953.

Classification of Peptides

Peptides are mostly divided into several classes. These classes vary on the basis of how the peptides are produced by themselves. For example, the translation of mRNA produces ribosomal peptides. Ribosomal peptides mostly work as hormones and signaling molecules in organisms. These can include calcitonin peptides, vasoactive intestinal peptides, pancreatic peptides, and tachykinin peptide opioid peptides. Some organisms produce antibiotics like microcins which are ribosomal peptides. Ribosomal peptides mostly undergo the process of proteolysis, which means the breakdown of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids to reach the mature form.

On the contrary, peptide-specific enzymes produce nonribosomal peptides. The ribosome does not produce them. Nonribosomal peptides are mainly cyclic rather than linear, although many times, linear nonribosomal peptides can occur. Nonribosomal peptides can develop extremely intricate cyclic structures. Nonribosomal peptides frequently appear in plants, fungi, and single-celled organisms. Glutathione, which is a significant part of antioxidant defense mechanisms in aerobic organisms, is the most common nonribosomal peptide.

Milk proteins form peptides in organisms. They can be produced by an enzymatic breakdown by digestive enzymes or by the proteinases formed by lactobacilli during the fermentation of milk. In addition to this, peptones are peptides that are derived from animal milk or meat that have been digested by proteolytic digestion. Peptones are often used in the laboratory as nutrients for growing fungi and bacteria.

Moreover, peptide fragments are most commonly found as the products of enzymatic degradation, which is performed in the laboratory on a controlled sample. However, peptide fragments can also occur naturally as a result of degradation by natural effects.

Important Terminologies used for Peptides

Amino Acids – Peptides consist of amino acids. An amino acid is any molecule that consists of both amine and carboxyl functional groups.

A cyclic peptide is a peptide in which the amino acid sequence forms a ring structure instead of a straight chain. Examples of cyclic peptides are Melanotan-2 and Bremelanotide (PT-141).

Peptide Sequence – It is simply the order in which peptide bonds connect amino acid residues in the peptide.

A peptide bond is a covalent bond formed between two amino acids when a carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another amino acid. This reaction is a condensation reaction, a reaction in which a molecule of water is released.

Peptide Mapping is a process that can be used to validate or discover the amino acid sequence of specific peptides or proteins.

Peptide Mimetics is a molecule that biologically mimics active ligands of hormones, enzyme substrates, cytokines, viruses, or other bio-molecules. Peptide mimetics can be a synthetically modified peptide, natural peptide, or other molecules that perform the required function.

Peptide Fingerprint – It is a chromatographic pattern of the peptide. A peptide fingerprint is produced by partially hydrolyzing the peptide, which breaks up the peptide into fragments, and these are then undergone the 2-D mapping process.

Peptide Library – It consists of a large number of peptides that have a systematic combination of amino acids. Solid-phase peptide synthesis is the most frequent peptide synthesis technique that is used to prepare peptide libraries.

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

Role of GHK-Cu in the Improvement of the Growth of Hair Follicle

GHK-Cu is formed as a result of the affinity of the human peptide, GHK (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine) to the Cu(2+) (Copper 2+). In the human body, the GHK-Cu has varied roles like collagen stimulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects, enhancing the...

How does Epitalon reverse aging?

Epitalon is a peptide that has been majorly studied with respect to its anti-aging influence. The findings have been restricted to animal studies. Hence the efficacy of the molecule in humans is subject to conjecture. The molecule has been shown to reverse the aging...

Unique Effect of Sermorelin on Sleep

What is Sermorelin? Sermorelin is a synthetic analog of the naturally occurring growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). GHRH is a 44 amino acid long peptide, and Sermorelin comprises the first 29 amino acids. The shortened peptide is biologically potent like the...
Research Effects of IGF-1 vs. IGF-1 LR3 Peptide

Research Effects of IGF-1 vs. IGF-1 LR3 Peptide

IGF-1 is the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 or Somatomedin 1 and is naturally present in the blood. It is a polypeptide hormone that has structural similarity to Insulin. It is primarily synthesized in the liver, and its synthesis is managed by the pituitary secretion of Growth Hormone (GH). Many other organs like the brain also synthesize IGF-1 locally.

The primary function of IGF-1 is the stimulation of growth. Most tissues, including bone, undergo hypertrophy, i.e., increase in cell size, and hyperplasia, i.e., increase in cell number, due to the secretion of IGF-1.

The concentration of IGF-1 in serum increases during childhood is at peak during puberty, and after this, it decreases progressively. The researchers have shown that IGF-1 is undetectable in people over the age of 60 years. Such research studies have led to numerous theories which say that the upregulation of IGF-1 may delay aging.

Numerous research studies have validated that decreasing levels of IGF-1 play an important role in the negative effects linked with the aging process, including a decline in lean muscle mass and an increase in adipose (fat) tissue. One research of 21 healthy men aged 61 to 81 years merely adds to the growing body of evidence showing low IGF-1 levels in the body are closely linked to an increase in the negative consequences of aging.

The males were split into two groups in the study: one had IGF-1 treatment three times weekly for six months, while the other received no treatment. The effects on the therapy group were as pronounced as they were convinced by the end of the research. This group experienced an 8.8% gain in lean muscle mass and a 14.4% decrease in adipose tissue. Furthermore, the therapy group experienced an average increase of 1.6 percent in lumbar vertebral bone density and a 7.1 percent rise in skin thickness (thinning of the skin and certain bones is a significant effect of the aging process). On the other hand, the control group experienced no changes in muscle mass, adiposity, bone density, or skin thickness. This and other studies like it abound, highlighting the vital role IGF-1 plays in the body.

Importantly, IGF-1 LR3 peptide is thought to be 2-3 times more effective in generating these effects than unmodified IGF-1. IGF-1 LR3 peptide is a more potent form of IGF-1 that has been chemically changed.

IGF-1 LR3 peptide & muscle growth

IGF-1 LR3 peptide is widely regarded as a potent activator of muscle growth. Many people are still ignorant of how IGF-1 LR3 peptide affects muscular tissue. IGF-1 LR3 peptide promotes new muscle cells and fibers while supporting the growth and retention of existing muscular tissue. IGF-1 LR3 peptide’s capacity to stimulate muscle cell proliferation in addition to its powerful anabolic properties distinguishes it from other muscle-building supplements.

When a person is exposed to certain muscular stimulation, such as that induced by weight training, the body responds by undergoing a process known as hypertrophy, which is an increase in the size of already existing muscle cells. This procedure, crucially, only impacts existing muscle cells. Only the muscle cells already present in the body grow in size; no new muscle cells or fibers are formed. The mature body only has a limited amount of muscle cells that can grow in this way. However, research has shown that giving study participants IGF-1 LR3 peptide, also known as Long R3 IGF-1, causes an increase in the size of existing muscle cells and the formation of new muscle cells (hyperplasia), and the growth of new muscle fibers (mitogenesis). In the presence of IGF-1 LR3 peptide treatment, studies have demonstrated that muscular growth rises considerably, and newly generated muscle cells increase in size and density. Clinical studies have shown that IGF-1 LR3 peptide is one of the few anabolic peptides that can stimulate hyperplasia and mitogenesis, adding even another dimension to its impressive list of actions.

IGF-1 LR3 & growth of new fibers and cells

IGF-1 LR3 peptide stimulates the body’s growth of new fibers and cells. Skin cells are included in this. The development of new skin cells aids Anti-aging.

According to a clinical experiment conducted by the National Institutes of Health, peptide therapy can reduce the appearance of wrinkles by up to 80%. The peptide was used topically in the trial. A placebo was given to one group, while a peptide-infused formula was given to the other. The depth and intensity of the creases were measured to see if they improved.

The following are the advantages of IGF-1 LR3 peptide therapy:
– Insulin sensitivity is reversed.
– Reduces weight, improves general metabolism, increases energy, accelerates muscular building, and improves sex desire.
– Enhances cognitive function and alleviates sadness

Doctors prescribe this type of peptide therapy to treat a variety of health problems. It aids children with growth problems, as previously stated. It also aids those who have problems growing in other areas, such as those suffering from muscle atrophy. This is especially important for HIV/AIDS patients because the disease causes substantial muscle loss. It can also benefit those who have low bone density.

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

Role of GHK-Cu in the Improvement of the Growth of Hair Follicle

GHK-Cu is formed as a result of the affinity of the human peptide, GHK (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine) to the Cu(2+) (Copper 2+). In the human body, the GHK-Cu has varied roles like collagen stimulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects, enhancing the...

How does Epitalon reverse aging?

Epitalon is a peptide that has been majorly studied with respect to its anti-aging influence. The findings have been restricted to animal studies. Hence the efficacy of the molecule in humans is subject to conjecture. The molecule has been shown to reverse the aging...

Unique Effect of Sermorelin on Sleep

What is Sermorelin? Sermorelin is a synthetic analog of the naturally occurring growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). GHRH is a 44 amino acid long peptide, and Sermorelin comprises the first 29 amino acids. The shortened peptide is biologically potent like the...