Melanotan 2 SPECIFICATIONS
Molecular Formula: C50H69N15O9
Molecular Weight: 1024.19 g/mol
PubChem: CID 92432
CAS Number: 121062-08-6
What is Melanotan 2 Peptide?
Melanotan 2 (MT-2) is a synthetic analogue of human alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (in short alpha-MSH). A study conducted at the University of Arizona observed the involvement of alpha-MSH in skin darkening and sexual arousal in rodents. This finding then led to the development of MT-2 in 1980s by the team of researchers at the university. Originally formulated as a sunless tanning agent, MT-2 was eventually to have multiple functions such as:
-induce skin tanning,
– increasing sexual stimulation,
– decreasing compulsive behavior,
– controlling addiction,
– regulating hunger,
– reducing glucagon synthesis, and
– reversing traits of autism.
Melanotan 2 and Melanocortin Signaling
Melanotan 2 associates with melanocortin receptors to mediate its biological function. There are five known melanocortin receptors, each involved in a different function. MT-2 binds essentially to MC-4R and MC-1R, and weakly to MC-3R.
– MC-1R: Exists on melanocytes, stimulation of MC-1R triggers hair and skin darkening.
– MC-2R: Found in the adrenal glands, stimulates the secretion of adrenal hormones, such as cortisol after binding of cognate ligand.
– MC-3R: MC-3R has been observed to regulate appetite control and energy regulation, but we don’t have further details about this receptor.
– MC-4R: Stimulation of MC-4R causes changes in feeding and sexual action, male erectile function and energy homeostasis.
– MC-5R: MC-5R is expressed on sweat glands and islet cells of the pancreas.
MT-2 and Autism
Autism, though incurable, can be managed with oxytocin treatment. MT-2 which is known to promote the release of oxytocin was studied in murine model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the work was to explore the possibility of autism management using MT-2. Administration of the peptide helps to reverse the decreased communication, affected social interaction and repetitive behavior observed in the affected mice. At a molecular level, MT-2 treatment enhanced the expression of oxytocin receptors in the affected areas of the mice brain, thus establishing a direct correlation between ASD-mediated behavior and oxytocin signaling.
The studies highlight the specific hormonal pathways which trigger development of the disease as well as novel therapeutic pathways to combat ASD. Thus researchers can develop a complete model of ASD which would be useful in both prevention and treatment of the condition.
Melanotan 2, Impulse Control and Alcohol Intake
MC-4R receptor has been observed to influence impulse control. Previous findings show that MT-2 administration promotes water uptake and reduces consumption of alcohol in rats that prefer alcohol consumption. In fact, naltrexone and Melanotan 2 combination suppresses binge uptake of ethanol in rats synergistically up to seven-fold.
The various observations show that the peptide regulates the basic process of desire and craving in the mammalian brain apart from being effective in alcohol-associated disorders. Hence, it brings about a deeper understanding of oxytocin regulation in impulsive behavior. This can even go further to help in lifestyle changes of human beings ranging from work to relationships.
MT-2 and Hunger
MT-2 has been observed to regulate food preference, hunger behavior and fat storage in animal models through interaction with melanocortin-4 receptor (MC-4R). MT-2 acts as an agonist for MC-4R. Mice treated with MT-2 not only take up significantly less food but also ignore fatty foods in terms of their preference. In a similar manner, mice mutant of the MC-4R receptor consume fatty foods almost exclusively and are resistant to the effects of Melanotan 2 peptide.
The effects of MT-2 can be compared to those of the hormone leptin, sometimes known as “the satiety hormone” because it controls cravings and food intake. Leptin, however, has never been successful in the treatment of obesity, even in leptin-deficient individuals. This is likely due to presence of two pathways for satiety, called leptin-dependent and leptin-independent pathways. Research suggests MT-2 stimulates both the pathways and therefore is more effective in controlling hunger. This finding was consolidated by the observation that MC-4R stimulation by MT-2 also induces gene expression of the leptin target thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Both MT-2 and leptin induce expression of TRH in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, a region of the brain which regulates feelings of satiety and food intake. However, only elevated levels of MT-2 can cross into the central nervous system to influence TRH expression.
Melanotan 2 and Diabetes
Elevated levels of blood sugar, hypersecretion of glucagon hormones and production of ketone bodies mark the pathogenesis of diabetes. Leptin is known to counteract these pathogenic alterations. The mode of action of leptin is independent of insulin and hence is explored as an alternative treatment for diabetes.
There are scientific proofs to show that leptin and MT-2 both mediate similar effects through melanocortin receptors. This is significant as leptin’s mode of action is restricted to the brain and it cannot cross the blood-brain barrier as readily like MT-2. Thus, exogenous leptin is unable to reach CNS and thereby it efficacy as a drug is limited. This makes Melanotan 2 peptide a preferred choice of treatment for a more effective outcome.
Erectile Dysfunction Research
Vascular issues often contribute to erectile dysfunction (ED). ED can be effectively treated by use of sildenafil (Viagra) and other drugs that improve blood flow to the erectile muscles and reduce vascular resistance. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often attributed to vascular issues and can be effectively treated in a majority of men via sildenafil (Viagra) and other drugs that improve blood flow by reducing vascular resistance. However, all forms of ED do not stem from vascular resistance. Hence Viagra is not effective against such forms of ED as well as against hypoactive sexual desire disorder of the majority of women. MT-2 is an effective alternative due to its influence on CNS. About eighty percent of men with ED who did not respond to Viagra, have shown improvement upon MT-2 use. The peptide has also been actively studied in the past to treat both male and female sexual desire disorders.
Future MT-2 Research
Melanotan 2 is an extensively studied peptide, specifically for human behavior, impulse control and sexual desire. The peptide, in different forms, has been investigated in clinical trials, though challenges with routes of administration have forced scientists to reconsider its clinical use. There is active and ongoing research to unravel the benefits of this particular peptide.
MT-2 exhibits minimal to moderate side effects, low oral bioavailability and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice. The administered dosage (per kg) in mice does not match up to the dosage required for humans. MT-2 sale at Peptide Sciences is restricted to educational and scientific research only, not for human administration.
Buy Melanotan 2 peptide, only if you are a licensed researcher.