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What Are Peptides?
A peptide is a molecule made up of two or more amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. It can also be defined as a polymer formed by binding amino acid subunits. A peptide molecule can be biologically active alone or can act as a subunit for a larger molecule. Proteins are essentially very large peptides, often consisting of several peptide subunits. Peptides are important in biology, chemistry, and medicine because they are blocks of hormones, toxins, proteins, enzymes, cells, and body tissue.
Peptides are biologically and medically important molecules. They occur naturally inside organisms, and compounds synthesized in the laboratory are active when introduced into a body. Peptides act as structural components of cells and tissues, hormones, toxins, antibiotics, and enzymes. Examples of peptides include the hormone oxytocin, glutathione (stimulates tissue growth), melittin (bee venom), the pancreatic hormone insulin, and glucagon (a hyperglycemic factor).
Any disease is a pathology of the cell. Thus, it is crucial for the body to obtain a constant supply of peptides. Once in the cell, the peptides accelerate the process of protein biosynthesis by interacting with cellular DNA. Despite their size, these small chains are vital biological entities capable of stimulating the process of cell regeneration, activating the body’s resources, preventing disease and inflammation, and aging. They are non-toxic and do not cause allergies.
ACE-031 is a synthetic protein comprised of activin receptor type IIB and immunoglobulin G1-Fc (IgG1-Fc). Research shows it can help stabilize muscle mass and strength in primary muscle-wasting disorders and neuromuscular conditions. Scientists note that “ACE-031 use demonstrated trends for pharmacodynamic effects on lean mass, fat mass, BMD, and 6MWT.” It is also known to bind myostatin (a protein) and neutralize its effects. ACE-031 could also have effects on fat storage, the health of sperm, and bone metabolism.
Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 (Argireline)
Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 (Argireline) is an anti-wrinkling peptide. The peptide consists of chains of amino acids and is a fragment of the SNAP-25 (a botulinum toxin substrate). There is a hypothesis that proposes the idea that continuous muscle movement can create wrinkles and lines. However, muscle contractions must devitalize to hinder new lines and decrease wrinkles. Acetyl hexapeptide-3 stops the muscles from moving or contracting and creating facial expressions such as frowning or smiling. Argireline also enhances collagen production to keep the skin smooth and devoid of wrinkles.
A class of proapoptotic peptides represents adipotides. They are in charge of removing the cells of fat in the organism. This is done by restricting blood supply to the adipose tissue but not to the vessels that supply blood to the rest of the body. Adipotide’s capability to assist in the process of losing weight better the reactions manifested to insulin resistance/Additionally, the decrease of symptoms of type 2 diabetes has been a result found through monkey research. The scientists report that “Treatment with adipotide induced targeted apoptosis within blood vessels of white adipose tissue and resulted in rapid weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys.”
AHK-Cu is a tripeptide with a copper atom linked with iron. It is a short peptide in which the copper atom is attached between the histidine and alanine residues of the alanine-histidine-lysine tripeptide. AHK-Cu has been studied extensively in a laboratory setting using models and animals because of its role in hair growth, effects on skin health, collagen synthesis, and hair loss prevention. Studies show that AHK-Cu also leads to the formation of new hair follicles by promoting new blood vessels and increasing blood supply to existing hair follicles. Due to stimulating the growth of blood vessels, AHK-Cu keeps the hair healthy, strong, and long. It is also promising and reassuring for the future applications of AHK-Cu in anti-aging skin-care products.
AICAR is a short peptide that has a role in energy homeostasis and various metabolic pathways. It regulates insulin receptors and how muscle cells function with insulin. Currently, it is being looked at for its potential in fighting cancer and its ability to help protect the heart tissue. It is used in a clinical setting to protect against cardiac ischemia, which typically could happen after a heart attack. Due to its antioxidant properties, it may help slow down the physical signs of aging.
AOD9604 is a modified peptide that was initially developed to treat obesity. It is an alteration of the peptide fragment 176-191 human growth hormone (HGH).  Regarding how AOD9604 works throughout the body, its objective is limited to boosting lyposis, making it a valuable component in treating obesity.
The use of AOD9604 is known not to provoke any clinical or medical risks of developing diabetes or glucose intolerance because it does not intervene in any processes regarding the levels of insulin or IGF1 in the organism. It is proven not to induce immunogenic effects and is immunologically safe.
ARA-290 is a variant of erythropoietin. It has decreased inflammatory pathways through paracrine signaling and the innate repair receptors. Research shows ARA-290 helps reduce HbA1c, improve cholesterol, modulate peripheral neuropathies and general neuropathic pain, and stimulate wound repair. It is currently an interest to researchers due to its ability to control neuropathic pain. It also is being looked at as a potential for wound repairing for those with chronic diabetes or lupus.
BPC-157 is procured from the parent protein known as the body protection compound (BPC). BPC is represented by a protein naturally produced in the digestive tract of the human organism. Its actions revolve around protecting the lining of the gastrointestinal tract from injury. It also mediates healing and stimulates the growth of blood vessels. BPC 157 is a Penta-decapeptide constituting a chain of 15 amino acids. Research conducted on laboratory subjects has demonstrated its effectiveness in healing various lesions such as muscle, tendon, and torn ligaments. This peptide protects organs and helps in avoiding gastric ulcers. BPC-157 also helps inhibit conditions such as IBS, gastrointestinal cramps, and Cohn’s disease.
B7-33 is derived from a more significant, naturally occurring protein, H2-relaxin, and is a soluble synthesized single chain peptide. It is currently being researched and investigated to reduce fibrosis in acute and chronic diseases. Some examples of these diseases would be kidney failure, heart failure, and lung inflammation. In past animal studies, the peptide has reduced nearly half of the fibrosis. This resulted in a higher survival rate following injuries and gave hope to treating heart failure in the next few decades. B7-33 has also been shown to reduce scar formation after a heart injury and promises to treat vascular disorders and preeclampsia.
BPC-157 & TB-500 Blend
BPC-157 and TB-500 promote wound healing, although they use different biochemical pathways. Research has shown that the two molecules show synergistic effects in the healing process when used together. The blend improves flexibility and adjustability with recurring injuries. BPC-157 and TB-500 influence wound healing through their regulation of axin protein. BPC-157 promotes the transcription of the axin gene. Thus, it increases the protein’s expression; It is known to act at the gene level to increase actin production. TB-500, on the other hand, is an actin-binding protein that sequesters actin in areas where its requirement is maximum for cell movement. Thus, BPC-157 & TB-500 synergize to enhance the expression and function of actin; and promote faster migration of cells to the areas of damage.
Cardiogen is a cardiovascular bioregulator peptide complex that can be considered a dietary supplement with a synthesized heart peptide. It received its name because it focused on the cardiovascular system. It causes the heart functions to return to normal levels by decreasing peptide deficiency and restoring protein synthesis in heart cells. Research has discovered that the primary roles are on cells responsible for scar formation, tissue repair throughout the body, and fibroblasts. This peptide increases effects and advances some therapy strategies. This helps those with cardiovascular issues as long-term outcomes even out, decreasing the side effects.
Chonluten, also known as tripeptide T-34, is a cytogenetic complex that consists of short peptides that work to normalize the mucous membrane cells of the lungs and the bronchial tube. It also works as a gene regulator and is associated with inflammation and antioxidant activities. In the lungs, it is considered an anti-inflammatory agent because it works to normalize mucosal functions in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Research shows that Chonlunten is important when treating or preventing lung disorders, bronchitis, and chronic respiratory infections. The research also proved that in elderly patients, it is effective in maintaining the respiratory system. Chonluten is tolerable and has no complications, side effects, contraindications, or drug dependence associated with its use.
CJC-1295 & GHRP-6 Blend
CJC-1295 & GRHP-6 are well-known synthetic analogs of the growth hormone-releasing and ghrelin hormones. CJC-1295 binds and interacts with the cognate receptor of GHRH in the anterior pituitary gland. GHRP-6 interacts with the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. GRP-6 maintains a consistent growth hormone level, whereas CJC-1295 stimulates a pulsatile secretion of the growth hormone. The combined use of the two peptides has proved to benefit in significantly improving one’s appetite and sleep cycle. Most of the repair and growth occurs during sleep; it helps cellular regeneration and repair while also improving wound healing and nerve tissue protection. CJC-1295 & GHRP-6 peptides are also associated with nervous tissue protection and better wound healing.
CJC-1295 & Ipamorelin & GHRP-2 Blend
CJC-1295 & Ipamorelin & GHRP-2 Blend provides the body with a GHRP hormone amplifier and a booster effect. This peptide combination enhances the level of Growth Hormone in the body due to an increase of cells that secrete Growth Hormone (Somatotrophs) along with increasing the strength of the pulse of GH. It altogether ensures a steady and enhanced release of growth hormone. This blend increases muscle mass and efficient weight loss and bone density. It also improves insulin sensitivity and anti-aging benefits.
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CJC-1295 & Ipamorelin Blend
Ipamorelin is a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue extensively studied in the diverse biological milieu. Ipamorelin is one of the most selective secretagogues and is a potent agonist of the growth hormone/ghrelin secretagogue receptor. A synthetic analog of growth hormone-releasing hormone is CJC-1295 DAC. It increases plasma levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). It is known that Ipamorelin improves bowel movement and gastric function. It also enhances the development and repair of muscles, and facilitates the release of insulin hormone from the pancreas, and stimulates the growth of bones. Ipamorelin is also involved in cellular repair, skin rejuvenation, increased collagen production, and overall freshness to the skin. CJC-1295 & Ipamorelin blend has also been used to stimulate balanced muscle growth and improve injury recovery time, sleep, and cognitive function.
A synthetic analog of growth hormone-releasing hormone is CJC-1295 DAC. It increases plasma levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The drug affinity complex (DAC) is an additive component that helps to prolong the half-life of CJC-1295 in plasma. CJC-1295 is one of the synthetic analogs comprising the first 29 amino acids of GHRH. It produces a GH secretagogue that has much better solubility, is more facile to synthesize, and keeps the natural results of GH.
A Neruorpeptide represents the Delta-Sleep-inducing Peptide (DSIP). The neuropeptide influences the central nervous system’s endocrine and physiological pathways.
DSIP helps in fighting oxidative stress and regulates myocardial contractility, and because of this, it is of high interest to researchers. Delta sleep-inducing peptide is a short-length peptide produced naturally in the organism, just like most peptides. The name of this molecule came about because it induces sleep in laboratory subjects, such as rabbits. Studies have shown that DSIP influences levels of corticotropin, inhibits the production of somatostatin, reduces stress, maintains normal blood pressure, changes sleep patterns, and affects the perception of pain.
Epithalon, a peptide that also goes by Epitalon, Epithalone, or Epithalamin, is a little synthetic peptide that activates the telomerase enzyme and promotes the liberation of melatonin. This substance was created in Russia in the 1980s. It was proved to slow down age-related modifications in reproductive and immune systems. It also proved to better the life span of laboratory subjects. Apart from its ability to regulate aging, this peptide is of great importance and has proved to have an essential role in some classes of cancer, regulation of DNA, and diseases with infectious character.
A full-sized synthetic version of a naturally occurring protein in the body is Follistatin-344. It occurs in two isomers based on their gene splicing. Its main objective in the body is to counteract the effect of the Tumor Growth Factor-beta family. The TGF-beta family comprises myostatin, activin, and Follicle Stimulating Growth Hormone (FSH).  Follistatin-344 acts by stimulating Insulin/IGF-1 pathway. It’s frequently studied due to its role in several human conditions, from muscle dysfunction to cancer and Diabetes. This peptide plays a role in muscle growth and affects Esophageal Carcinoma and Diabetes Mellitus.
FOXO4-DRI is a synthetic version of FOXO4 that contains D amino acids instead of L amino acids. This allows it to retain the functionality of the original protein and longer shelf life and lower clearance from the body. FOXO4-DRI’s known function is the regulation of apoptosis in senescent cells. FOXO4 protein is a member of the group of transcription factors that regulates growth and differentiation. It is found in tissues such as the placenta, ovaries, fat cells, testes, and adrenal glands. FOXO4-DRI has been found to prevent standard FOXO4 binding to p53, eliminating senescent cells, enhancing organ function, and reducing “biological age.” FOXO4-DRI influences insulin signaling, cell cycle regulation, and oxidative stress signaling pathways.
Fragment 176-191 peptide (lipolytic fragment) represents a truncated part of Hgh (human growth hormone). Its name came about due to studies conducted on animals, demonstrating that the Fragment 176-191 increases fat metabolism in obese lab subjects.
Human growth hormone treatment has shown to have many side effects on the body, including suppression of carbohydrate metabolism, altered sensitivity towards insulin, promotion of long bone growth, and heightened insulin-like growth factor-1(GF-1) levels. Substantial animal research has revealed that the synthetic fragment increases the lipolytic results of hGH without inducing the same adverse reactions.
Fragment 176-191 & CJC-1295 & Ipamorelin Blend
Studies in animal models have highlighted the efficacy of Fragment 176-191, a short stretch of human growth hormone (HGH), in promoting fat mobilization and triggering a metabolic shift towards the perpetuation of lean body mass. CJC-1295 is another synthetic GH-releasing hormone. It promotes the production of GH and can be used as an alternative for Fragment 176-191 concerning GH synthesis. CJC-1295 is majorly an anti-aging peptide. CJ-1295 improves basal as well as highest physiological levels of GH. It further increases the availability of free GH in plasma. Ipamorelin is a peptide that is an agonist for the GH secretagogue receptor. It can be administered in combination with Fragment 176-191 and CJ-1295 to enhance GH secretion further and maximize its physiological level. Animal studies have proven Ipamorelin beneficial in regulating insulin and bone mineralization.
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Fragment 176-191 & Mod GRF 1-29 & Ipamorelin Blend
Studies show that the highest output of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland can be achieved through a combination of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) analog and agonist of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Combining ipamorelin with modified GRF is one of the various combinations that help attain the above objective. More distinct results can be achieved beyond the increase in GH synthesis by refining the choice of GHRH analog and GHSR agonist. The presentation of ipamorelin along with modified GRF triggers the highest expression of GH. Ipamorelin continuously improves bone growth and stabilization of the cellular matrix; The above physiological outcomes are in addition to improved bone development caused directly by increased GH release. Combining these peptides is a potent HGH response minus all the side effects. It helps improve body composition, bone and joint health, and anti-aging effects.
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GHK Basic (Tripeptide-1)
GHK is a copper peptide that naturally occurs in the tripeptide glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine copper complex. It has two variants — GHK, with and without Cu. GHK has a strong rapport with copper (II), and it is synthesized naturally from human plasma, saliva, and urine. GHK is released from tissues in case of injuries.The copper peptide affects genes that control an organism’s response to injury and stress. Its functions include tissue remodeling, anti-inflammatory response, anti-anxiety, anti-pain, anti-cancer, and blood vessel growth. A decline in GHK- levels decreases regenerative capacity in an organism. GHK plays a part in hair growth, infection control, cancer, wound healing, and glycosaminoglycan synthesis; additionally, it increases collagen and elastin.
GHK-CU is a naturally occurring peptide first purified from human blood plasma.
Due to this, it was also found in saliva and urine. Regarding research on this peptide, GHK-Cu shows a substantially valuable role in healing lesions, injury, and wounds and in the functions of the body that involve the immune system. Moreover, GHK-Cu possesses properties of anti-aging, inhibits bacterial infections, and betters skin health.
GHRP-2 (pralmorelin) is a synthetic growth hormone secretagogue that inter communicates with the GH secretagogue receptor. GHRP-2 was one of the first hormone secretagogues to be launched commercially. This peptide is commercialized as a test if an evaluation for lack of GH or adrenal failure is needed. Many investigations have been administered to determine its role in muscle regulation, appetite, sleep, and the immune system. GHRP-2 stays orally and sublingually active; thus, it does not request an intravenous introduction for its physiological effects.
GHRP-6 is a potent stimulant that aids in the liberation of natural growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary gland. It also works as a GH receptor agonist and has its place amongst the ghrelin analogs developed over the past few decades. Results show it to have a good effect on the cardiac muscles’ cells, memory formation, sex drive, and scars.
Gonadorelin (GnRH) is a decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, and it encourages the synthesis and release of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. It is commonly used to treat infertility, irregular menstrual cycles, and hypogonadism. It has also been used as a diagnostic tool to assess pituitary function. Continuing research has uncovered potential uses for gonadorelin in treating breast, prostate, and Alzheimer’s disease. The uncovering that gonadorelin may play a role in treating prostate cancer is a step forward for physicians. This advancement allows the physicians to develop effective treatments for patients with prostate cancer. If prostate cancer develops, 99% of people can be cured entirely. Gonadorelin has shown minimal side effects and low oral and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice.
Hexarelin, also known as Examorelin, is represented by a synthetic analog of ghrelin and displays an increased similarity to GHRP-6. The factor that distinguishes the two is the addition of two methyl groups to the structure of GHRP-6. Hexarelin is known to stay active orally and sublingually, showing increased selectivity in its mechanism of action. Research has been extensively conducted to determine its influence on cardiac cell survival following ischemia and deprivation of nutrients.
Humanin is a naturally occurring micropeptides that is unique in that it is encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mitochondria contain small amounts of DNA reserved exclusively for them). It acts as a cytoprotective protein and protects cells from the process of apoptosis (programmed cell death) by interfering with the regular operation of the Bcl2-related X protein (Bax).  Studies show that humanin is essential for protecting heart tissue, muscle cells, neurons, the lining of blood vessels, and the eye’s retina.
IGF-1 DES is a type of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). In this peptide, the N-terminal sequence made up of Glycine-Proline-Glutamine is missing. Consequently, it makes it resistant to specific inhibitors causing an increase in its bioavailability. It has about ten times greater potency than the untruncated version. It also has demonstrated roles in advancing hypertrophy and cellular growth. It also induces anabolism in catabolic conditions. This may be seen during chronic illnesses as an anti-inflammatory agent against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and certain neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders like autism. IGF-1 DES differs from IGF-1 as it does not bind to IGFBPs, allowing these peptides to cross the blood-brain barrier upon exogenous administration. It promotes skeletal muscle and neuronal growth, development, and wound healing. Use in disorders caused by stroke, cancer, or autism is also being researched.IGF-1 DES has some side effects and possesses low oral and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability.
Insulin-like growth factor-1 long arginine 3, or IGF-1 LR3, is a modified version of insulin-like growth factor-1. All forms of IGF-1 contribute significantly to cell proliferation, division, and cell-to-cell communication. Research has shown that IGF-1 LR3 does not communicate with IGF binding proteins as potently as IGF-1, despite displaying physiological reactions similar to the parent protein. The increased half-life of IGF-1 LR3 in the blood is due to the alterations done to the structure of the peptide.
Ipamorelin is a peptide sequence of reduced dimensions. This peptide sequence links with the ghrelin/GH secretagogue. Investigations have revealed that this peptide is incredibly selective in its mode of action and does not induce the non-specific release of hormones. Ipamorelin is a valuable subject for selectivity research in receptor linking and is a contender for therapeutic use due to its increased specificity.
This peptide influences the growth and repair of muscles and skeletal tissue of the organism. This is due to its ability to set off the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and block the secretion of somatostatin.
Kisspeptin-10 is a mediator of endocrine signaling when a person hits puberty and during reproduction. It can affect the mood and behavior of a person and encourage the development and regulation of blood vessels and renal function, discouraging cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Also known as metastin, this peptide can affect the gonadotropin-releasing hormone or GnRH. Kisspeptin also regulates hormone secretion related to human reproduction and impacts testosterone levels and sex-related behaviors like drive and motivation. One of its analogs, Kisspeptin-10, is the safest due to its minimal side effects and acceptable oral and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice.
KPV (alpha-MSH) has been looked at for its photoprotective properties, sexual influences, benefits on feeding behavior, anti-inflammatory properties, effect against ischemia, and energy homeostasis. It can be introduced in three ways: oral, intravenous, and transdermal routes. KPV is a potent anti-inflammatory peptide that shows promise in different diseases, especially in IBD treatment. In animal studies, the peptide is safe and effective when administered orally, intravenously, and subcutaneously. KPV and other alpha-MSH derivatives can bring benefits that enhance wound healing, reduce infection, fight inflammation, and promote improved cosmetic results. KPV and similar peptides could revolutionize wound healing and scar reduction following surgery.
L-Glutathione (low molecular-weight tripeptide) is made up of sequential additions of cysteine to glutamate and is followed by glycine insertion. L-Glutathione is a thiol which means it is a part of the sulfhydryl group. It plays an essential role in maintaining the redox cell state and protecting it from internal and external chemicals. L-Glutathione is used primarily for its antioxidant power and anti-toxic effect, and it protects against cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy damaging effects. Glutathione can reduce melanin formation; thus, it is an excellent way to treat pigmentation and melasma. Oral L-Glutathione administration is not effective. Research has found that oral glutathione gets metabolized by gut enzymes. This metabolism causes a reduction in glutathione levels. When injected or inhaled into the lungs, L-Glutathione gives its maximum health benefits.
Lipopeptide (Biopeptide EL)
Lipopeptide comprises a lipid and a peptide, making it a compound; TLR 1 and other Toll-like receptors bind to this collagen peptide.
Researchers report that Lipopeptide enhances the growth and creation of collagen and hyaluronic acid within the skin. It not only increases the synthesis of natural collagen but also increases the productivity of HA. Lipopeptide colludes with the cell membrane to strengthen and refresh natural cell processes. This rebuilds them to maximize their growth potential. Consequently, they are one of nature’s most powerful anti-aging agents. Lipopeptide is more biocompatible with the skin’s natural structure than other water-soluble peptides. Lipopeptide is formed as a metabolic product by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi and utilized as an antibiotic, antifungal, and anticancer agent.
Liraglutide (GLP-1) is a chemical peptide that means Glucose Like Peptide – 1. It contains about 30-31 amino acids and occurs naturally. Its prominent role is to lower blood glucose levels. It does this by acting on Beta cells of the Islet of Langerhans to produce a large amount of insulin. Its functions do not end at just lowering blood glucose levels; it also acts on the gastrointestinal system (GIT), the brain, and the cardiovascular system. Liraglutide also works in the bone, fat tissues, liver, lungs, muscle tissues, and kidneys.
Livagen is a short peptide bioregulator and is almost related to Epitalon. Its effects are exhibited directly on the lymphocytes of the immune system, liver, and GIT. Its direct functions are not limited—as seen in DNA and gene expression patterns. Livagen activates genes enclosed in the GIT and immune system and is a consequence of its anti-aging feature. Livagen is a promising peptide regulator; However, research is ongoing to explore how Livagen can usher humanity into discerning the aging process and senescence. Livagen shows minimal side effects, ranging from low oral to excellent subcutaneous bioavailability.
LL-37 (only known human Cathelicidin) is a family of proteins in which every individual manifests various roles and functions. Produced by macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, these peptides have displayed bactericidal action and a considerable amount of other substantial effects. These effects have been revealed to charge this peptide with a valuable role in autoimmune disease, cancer, and injury healing. This family is usually referred to as AMPs (antimicrobial peptides).
Matrixyl is a lipopeptide that combines fatty acids mixed with amino acids. It is a synthetic isomer (an isomer is a molecule with an identical structure to another molecule but different atomic components). The active element in Matrixyl is a second peptide called Micro-collagen. It is a small molecule that is porous in the skin and is structurally similar to collagen precursors. Most of the matrixyl application reactions are found in the skin’s dermis. It promotes self-healing in the lower layers of the skin and has been termed an anti-wrinkle peptide. When combined with other peptides, it has improved the skin’s health tremendously.
Melanotan 1 (MT-1) is a synthetic variant of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). One of the peptide’s duties is to help treat erythropoietic protoporphyria to avoid any damage or sun-related injury to the skin. Hence the reason it was created to act as a sunless tanning agent.
Regarding clinical studies regarding this peptide, researchers have revealed that trials are in phase II for keratosis (a specific type of sun-induced skin damage). It is also in phase III for curing polymorphous light eruption.
Melanotan 2 is a type of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone that has pigmentation for the skin. It is a form of Melanotan I (afamelanotide), which is a substance used in erythropoietic protoporphyria therapy. Researchers suggest that it might not cause pigmentation as much as it will help boost melanocytes to help against UV rays in organisms that have a deficiency of this peptide. This reveals that it has more attributes for avoiding itchiness and sores than darkening the skin.
MGF (Mechano Growth Factor)
Mechano-Growth Factor (MGF) is another name for the insulin-like growth factor-1Eb (IGF-1Eb) isoform of IGF-1. This peptide is charged with an essential role in the remodeling of muscles, cellular survival, and cellular proliferation. Current research on this isoform emphasizes its role in activating satellite cells in skeletal muscle, implying that this isoform can activate satellite cells in skeletal muscle, shielding neurons and helping with the age-related loss of muscle mass. The primary role of MGF is to promote the restoration of severe muscle injury and damage.
Mod GRF 1-29 & Ipamorelin Blend
Mod GRF (1-29) – Ipamorelin is two peptides with similar functions and works synergistically. These peptides, when used together, trigger growth hormone release and stimulate the growth hormone pulses. This increase results in the physiological benefits associated with increased growth hormone release, such as improved growth, vitality, mental clarity, and overall health. Mod GRF (1-29) peptide is an analog of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). On the other hand, Ipamorelin is capable of binding to growth hormone secretagogue receptors. Research points out that using the blend of Mod GRF (1-29) Ipamorelin can lead to better outcomes than using the peptides alone. These outcomes improved memory, caused better glucose control, enhanced post-workout recovery, lean muscle gain, and improved overall health.
Mod GRF 1-29 (CJC-1295 NO DAC)
Mod GRF (1-29) is known as a synthetic peptide analog of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). In the 1980s, research supports that the first 29 amino acids of GHRH had the entirety of biological capacities associated with the full-length 44 residue proteins. This means GRF 1-29, the shortest segment of GHRH, possesses all of the properties of a full-length hormone.
Even if GRF is considered biologically strong as GHRH, the difference comes when discussing the duration of action. Its action is limited due to its half-life of only 10 minutes, so researchers have decided to alter it to enhance its duration of action and add a better therapeutic potential.
Mod GRF 1-29 & GHRP-2 Blend
Mod GRF 1-29 is a synthetic peptide analog of the Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) and is an altered version of the first twenty-nine amino acids of the GHRH. This modification creates better stability in the body and also avoids metabolic clearance. It caused natural Growth Hormone production in the body and increased levels of IGF-1. GHRP-2 (Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide) is a second-generation GHRP. It increases the Growth Hormone levels in the body by increasing the natural Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone signal transduction pathway while suppressing the action of Somatostatin. This blend works best if administered synergistically simultaneously as the body naturally releases growth hormones.
Mod GRF 1-29 & GHRP-6 Blend
Mod GRF (1-29) & GHRP-6 are both synergistic peptides that work together to increase the release of growth hormone (GH). The Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) contains 44 amino acids in its structure. The first 29 amino acids contain the total biological activity of GHRH; thus, this fraction is known as the Growth Hormone Releasing Factor (GRF 1-29). GRF 1-29 is biologically more active. It also has a longer duration of action as it evades metabolic clearance. Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6 (GHRP-6) is a powerful stimulator of growth hormone release from the anterior pituitary gland; It is also a powerful agonist of ghrelin and growth hormone receptors. Using a Mod GRF (1-29) & GHRP-6 blend leads to superior growth hormone release and better outcomes than using either of these peptides alone.
MOTS-c or Mitochondrial-Derived Peptide (MDP) is a bioactive hormone closely associated with mitochondrial communication and energy regulation. It is proven to be the most active in the mitochondria. However, recent research states otherwise, and MOTS-c can enter the bloodstream—exhibiting the systematic effect. MOTS-c is a newly identified MDP, and its main roles are exercise capacity, longevity, and weight regulation.
NAD+, an oxidized form of NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Hydroxide), is a part of the Electron Transport Chain (ETC), and transports electrons from one biological reaction. It becomes an agent for shuttling energy within and outside the cell. It acts as a mediator for various biological processes in the body as well. An example of this duty is aiding in the post-translational modification of the proteins and activation/deactivation of some enzymes. It is a vital part in maintaining cell-to-cell communication in the body. NAD+ is a naturally occurring compound with virtually few to no side effects. It can also be used synergistically with other supplements to obtain multiplied benefits.
Nonapeptide-1, or Melanostatine-5, is a peptide developed due to its antimicrobial activities. Research has shown that it reduced hyperpigmentation and works to correct skin color. Research has shown that Nonapeptide-1 inhibits the synthesis of melanin. This brings forth the idea that it can be useful when treating certain skin conditions. Animal research hypothesizes that Nonapeptide-1 could reduce the synthesis of melanin and help lessen the pigmentation of the skin. There are numerous cells in the human skin; each has different functions.
Oxytocin is a small peptide made of nine amino acids and is the hormone the hypothalamus produces. Oxytocin receptors are found in cells throughout the body. It can also be produced by the ovaries, placenta, retina, and pancreas. Alongside dopamine, serotonin, and endorphins, oxytocin is part of the “happiness neurotransmitters” group. They increase feelings of well-being, reduce stress, reduce anxiety, and improve depression. It helps with bonding with newborns, sexual production, and milk production.
Pal-AHK is also known as Palmitoyl Tripeptide-3. It consists of amino acid sequences and alanine-histidine-lysine and attaches to a Palmitoyl fatty acid molecule. Pal-AHK (Palmitoyl Tripeptide-3) works to enhance hair growth, decrease the effects of skin aging and speed up wound healing. It can also work to tighten the skin, enhance collagen production, and speed up regeneration. Research advises that Pal-AHK could start the production of fibroblasts by interacting with transforming growth factor-𝛽 (TGF-𝛽).
Pal-GHK or Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1 and Palmitoyl Oligopeptide is a synthetic peptide. Its functions are apparent in collagen, skin pigment, and skin health. Pal-GHK helps improve skin health and reverse the apparent aging signs.
Pal-GHK is a synthetic hybrid peptide that contains a fatty acid and a peptide. Pal-GHK is a small part of the large elastin protein and a powerful stimulant of fibroblasts. Scientists are looking at Pal-GHK to detect its ability to improve collagen synthesis and enhance the development of blood vessels.
E-22-28 is a synthetic variant of the peptide spadin, a secreted peptide obtained from sortilin and acts as an antagonist of the TWIK-related-potassium channel (TREK-1 ) receptor. This is a two-pore potassium channel known to be a potential target in treating depression and potentially a neurogenic regulator. Mouse studies have shown that TREK-1 receptor deletion makes them resistant to depression. Sortilin treatment also causes resistance to depression by advancing neuronal growth and intersynaptic connections.
PE-22-28 represents the group of synthetic spadin analogs that have higher efficacy and stability than spaldin analogs. PE-22-28 is also faster than other known anti-depressant and induces neurogenesis in about four days. The PE-22-28 peptide can treat neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and boost memory.
PEG-MGF (Peglyated MGF)
Pegylated Mechano-Growth Factor or PEG-MGF is a partially modified variant of insulin-like growth factor 1 or IGF-1. It has been shown to possess the ability to stimulate muscle cell proliferation and differentiation, stimulate the mechanism of action of the immune system, increase endurance and lower cholesterol levels. Its other benefits include enhancing the plasma stability of a compound such as MGF by lowering its clearance in the kidneys. Hence, Pegylation is considered to be a standard, safe and valuable alteration.
Pentapeptide-18 consists of five amino acids (Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-Leu). Research has shown it to penetrate the skin and prevent the likelihood of lines and wrinkles, which can occur after facial muscle movements. In vitro and animal studies, Pentapeptide-18 has similar effects to those seen with Botox.
Pentapeptide-18 is the synthetic equivalent of enkephalins. It is an endorphin peptide responsible for regulating nociception in the human body.
Studies demonstrate that Pentapeptide-18 can influence movement, mood, behavior, and pain perception.
Pinealon is known as a short peptide made up of only three amino acids. It is one synthetic peptide type considered a peptide bioregulator as they interact with DNA directly to change gene expression levels. It produces behavior modification and protects many cell types. These cell types include neurons against hypoxia. Pinealon affects the pineal gland to address issues with medication metabolism, circadian rhythm disorders, memory, learning, and more.
PNC-27 is a synthetic peptide that targets and destroys cancer cells. It is a part of the PNC family of probe proteins and attaches to malformed or cancer cells and dies by cell necrosis. Normal and healthy cells remain intact. The PNC-27 peptide contains the HDM2 binding and transmembrane domains corresponding to residue 1226 on p53. It can bind to and kill cancer cells through membrane lysis or cell membrane destruction. Studies show that the PNC-27 peptide is powerful and strategic in targeting a variety of specific cancers, including pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, leukemia, melanoma, and other cancer strains.
PT-141 (bremelanotide) is generally named the female Viagra. It has been researched in clinical trials to treat hypoactive sexual desire disorder in females and is derived from Melanotan 2. PT-141 is a melanocortin that communicates with the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC-4R) and MC-1R. This product was investigated for the treatment of acute hemorrhage 12 years ago.
Protein Transduction Domain-fused Disheveled Binding Motif or PTD-DBM is a synthetic peptide used to treat hair loss or wound healing. It stops hair loss by interacting with the endogenous proteins linked to hair loss, such as CXXC5. A cellular pathway called Wnt/β-catenin is crucial for healthy hair growth, and the signaling regulated by this pathway controls hair morphogenesis, growth, and regeneration. Researchers noticed that topical application of PTD-DBM was effective in achieving hair growth.
Receptor Grade IGF-1 LR3
Receptor Grade IGF-1 LR3 peptide is a primary research reagent that is used in research for IGF receptors, IGF binding proteins, and cellular growth. Due to advances in its biological activity, it is known to be more powerful than Media Grade IGF-1 LR3 and rH IGF-1 in vitro. Receptor Grade IGF-1 LR3 should be the testing agent of choice to produce the best outcomes when conducting research. IGF-1 LR3 is capable of inducing the type 1 IGF receptor, promoting increased intracellular signaling, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis inhibition.
Selank is a tiny peptide displaying nootropic and anxiolytic traits and is a synthetic analog of Tuftsin. Tuftsin is a substance that is naturally produced. Tuftsin is also an immunomodulatory peptide regulating T helper cells, IL-6, monoamine neurotransmitters, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Even though it is an analog of Tuftsin, Selank shows a structural difference, having an addition of four amino acids in its sequence, which increase the half-life and metabolic stability. Other clinical research has revealed that it is also suitable for anxiety disorders.
Semaglutide (GLP-1) is a short, naturally occurring peptide. The hormone is only 3031 amino acids in length. Its primary function is to lower blood sugar levels by naturally increasing insulin secretion. Another one of its functions is to protect beta-cell insulin storage by promoting the transcription of insulin genes. It is also associated with neurotrophic effects in the central nervous system and the brain. The GI system has shown that Semaglutide significantly reduces appetite by slowing gastric emptying and bowel motility. Studies have also shown the effects of Semaglutide on the lungs, muscles, bones, heart, fat, liver, and kidneys.
Semax is a synthetic analog of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and it is made from amino acids 4-10 of ACTH. Research has shown that this peptide can aid in medical conditions such as strokes, dementia, cognitive impairment, and optic nerve inflammation.
Semax also supports the immune system and can play a role as an antidepressant. Semax is also known to have anxiolytic traits. Studies have shown that Semax can also enhance the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the central nervous system, serotonin, and dopamine levels.
Sermorelin is constituted to be a synthetic peptide equivalent to the first 29 amino acids. It encloses the active part of the native hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone or somatorelin, which itself exists as a 37, 40, or 44 amino acid peptide.
Sermorelin is formed to duplicate the results of growth hormone-releasing hormone by liberating somatropin from the organism’s somatotropic cells.
Sermorelin & Ipamorelin Blend
Combining Sermorelin & Ipamorelin peptides blend is an excellent method to create the highest growth hormone release. Sermorelin is a newly developed growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) analog. It maintains the benefits of natural GHRH and assists in avoiding a few undesirable effects. One reason sermorelin is a better choice than GHRH is due to its process of action; It acts by a negative feedback mechanism. This means that its products will automatically cease in the case of its excess. This process reduces the adverse effects of GH excess in the body.
SNAP-8 is a potent anti-aging peptide that relieves fine lines and facial wrinkles. A synaptosome-associated protein called SNAP-25 is in charge of muscle contraction that leads to the formation of wrinkles. The acetyl hexapeptide-3 imitates its peptide fragment and has an inhibitory effect on the action of SNAP-25. This has been used extensively in various anti-aging formulations. Adding two other amino acids to this hexapeptide forms acetyl octapeptide. Acetyl Octapeptide has a more promising effect in treating facial wrinkles than Acetyl hexapeptide. The product is generally available in both powder and solution form. SNAP-8 powder (an octapeptide powder) can be easily dissolved in water. The SNAP-8 Solution, however, is available as an aqueous solution with a composition.
Syn-AKE is a peptide that is also known as tripeptide-3 or dipeptide diaminobutyroyl benzyl amide diacetate. Syn-AKE is an effective synthetic peptide ingredient. It imitates the effects of the Walgerin 1 peptide, which is 21 amino acids in length, from Temple Viper venom (a venomous snake found in Southeast Asia). It is a small synthetic peptide that aids in reducing the appearance of laugh lines and wrinkles. Syn-AKE has been used as a serum or can be added to skincare products. Syn-AKE is known to reduce transmission between muscles and nerves, and the effectiveness of Syn-AKE is remarkable. It reduces the depth of facial wrinkles rapidly and has excellent skin-soothing properties.
Syn-Coll (Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5)
Syn-Coll (Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 or Tripeptide-5) is a synthetic peptide that amplifies Type I collagen production. Animal research studies have shown that Syn-Coll can reduce wrinkles in skin areas prone to aging. The peptide also damages photo-aging. It also regenerates and smooths the skin, refines the pore appearance, improves skin elasticity and firmness, and betters the skin texture.
Syn-Coll is the synthetic equivalent of Thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1). It also imitates the functions of Thrombospondin 1, assisting in the prevention of collagen degeneration via stimulating the release of TGF-𝛃 induced by TSP-1.
TB-500 is a synthetic analog of Thymosin Beta-4 peptide, which is naturally occurring in the organisms of humans and animals. It is part of a family consisting of 16 related molecules with a high degree of sequence conservation and localization in most of the tissue cells of the organism. TB-500 aids in obstructing actin polymerization in eukaryotic cells. Due to its ability to promote new blood cell growth, heal and mediate muscle damage and muscle development, this peptide is considered one of the most valuable wound healing molecules and possesses anti-inflammatory properties.  Thymosin Beta-4, unlike other growth factors, helps in endothelial and keratinocyte migration.
Tesamorelin acetate (also known as Tesamorelin or Egrifta) is a synthetic peptide hormone. Tesamorelin also acts as a hormone. This signifies that it associates with the endocrine system and sends chemical signals to your body to help regulate functioning. Tesamorelin peptide is a synthetic copy of the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) that is made naturally. This peptide deserves to be mentioned because of its contribution to the management of HIV. Research proves that it can reduce cardiovascular diseases in HIV-infected subjects. Tesamorelin is also being looked at as a therapy for insulin resistance and obesity.
Thymalin is considered to be a synthetic derivative of thymulin, which is a substance that is naturally occurring in the thymus. It stimulates cell-mediated immunity, increases phagocytosis, and the process of hematopoiesis and regeneration.
It is used in the practice of medicine as an immunostimulant in the elaborated treatment of diseases followed by the suppression of cell-mediated immunity. This encloses the consequences of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as trophic ulcers, burns, and inflammatory diseases.
Thymosin Alpha 1
A peptide that is created naturally by the organism is Thymosin alpha 1. It is primarily clinically researched for its use in cystic fibrosis, hepatitis, infections, respiratory disorders, and cancer. It is also being researched to treat Hepatitis B and C and is approved to be included with vaccines to stimulate the immune response to treat other diseases. It is known to have a pleiotropic effect, which can modulate the immune system’s reaction and help with inflammation. This is done by working with T-cells and the natural maturation of the killer cells.
TRH Thyrotropin (Protirelin)
Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH), also known as Protirelin, is a small peptide hormone synthesized in the hypothalamus. Its primary functions are the release of both thyroid-stimulating hormones and prolactin from the anterior pituitary. TRH is used clinically to study the function of the anterior pituitary gland during thyroid disorders. TRH has anti-depressant and anti-suicidal properties and regulates the aging process, arousal, autonomic regulation, feeding behavior, and fighting free radical damage.
Tripeptide-29 is a synthesis of one of the essential components of collagen. The ultimate property of quaternary collagen compounds. Tripeptide-29 acts as a part of the larger collagen molecule. Tripeptide-29’s amino acid sequence and relative frequency can change collagen molecules’ tertiary and quaternary properties with collagen superstructure. It is essential to remember that collagen is a structural protein and plays a role in cell adhesion, tissue regulation, and healing. Tripeptide-29 can affect a variety of physiological properties.
Triptorelin is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog that has been used in clinical practices. It has been used to treat advanced prostate cancer as part of a complicated approach to androgen deprivation therapy. Triptorelin is a powerful inhibitor—a synthesis of testosterone and estrogen with long-term continuous dosing. In other countries, Triptorelin is used to suppress the synthesis of testosterone and estrogen in transgender individuals. Triptorelin is also used to treat hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in premenopausal women.
Vialox (Pentapeptide-3V), discovered in snake venom, is a peptide sequence. It mimics the effects of botox through temporary muscle paralysis. This reduces fine lines and wrinkle appearance on the skin. Due to animal studies, researchers have discovered that after a 28-day twice-daily treatment, Vialox eliminates wrinkles by 50% and skin roughness by 47% in research subjects. It hinders nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. This function causes them to have a curare-like effect at the neuromuscular junction. This stops the nervous system’s electrical impulses from reaching their destination, muscles, and halts its contractions.
Vilon is a powerful immunomodulatory and anti-aging bioregulator peptide. There are many studies supporting the benefits that come from Vilon. There is scientific support that the peptide could assist in preventing or reducing cancer development and progression. Research has evidence that the peptide also provides strong anti-aging effects if it is administered in a timely manner. In addition to being administered early, it should also be given consistently and with low dosages. Due to extensive research on Vilon, the findings create a path of exploration to more anti-aging clinical research. Thus the future findings may help scientists understand epigenetic regulation and its role in survival.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP or PHM27) is a short peptide hormone made in most vertebrate animals’ gut, pancreas, and brain, including humans. Studies highlight the function of VIP in controlling inflammation, especially in neurodegenerative disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pulmonary fibrosis, and cardiac fibrosis. VIP is effective in treating fibrosis. VIP is also a powerful immune system regulator and general anti-inflammatory peptide. It is of extreme interest to researchers for its ability to preserve cognitive function in the setting of neurodegenerative disease.
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