What is Epitalon?
Epitalon, also known as Epithalon or Epithalamide, is a tetrapeptide secreted from the pineal gland. Aiat comprises Alanine, Glycine, Aspartic acid, and Glutamic acid. It mimics the naturally occurring pineal hormone called Epithalamin.
The peptide molecule binds to and induces the sensitivity of the hypothalamus towards the natural hormone. This regulates the circadian rhythm of the body and controls melatonin production. The peptide has shown positive influence in the areas of anti-aging; it improves life expectancy as well as inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells (breast, prostate, and colon).
Mode of action
Telomeres are sequences present towards the end of the chromosomes. Each round of replication results in shortening of telomere length due to basal expression and activity of telomerase enzyme. In subsequent cellular divisions, the sequences shorten and ultimately lead to the loss of crucial DNA elements from the chromosomes. This leads to cellular senescence, the onset of aging, and age-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and untimely death for senior individuals.
Epitalon helps to activate the telomerase enzyme. The enzyme thus maintains the telomeric length and reverses the aging process. Cells continue to divide with better health and thereby contribute to healthy physiology.
How Epitalon reverses aging in animal studies
What is meant by aging?
Aging is the natural physiological phenomenon whereby cells undergoing repeated cycles of division ultimately shorten their telomere length beyond the Hayflick limit. These cells then lose some of the good DNA required for their proper propagation. Thereby such aged cells either leak out accumulated toxins into the surrounding system or undergo self-degradation (apoptosis or programmed cell death). However, sometimes such aging cells, instead of perishing, turn rogue and adversely affect tissues of various organs like kidney, lungs, liver, brain, heart and causes the onset of diseases.
Scientists used murine models of the early onset of aging to study the effect of the molecule. Genetically modified mice were used for the research. These animals showed shortened lengths of telomeres and lead to the early onset of aging. They display various physiological impairments like shrinkage in the size of the brain, atrophied spleens, damaged intestines, loss of sense of smell, and so on. These subjects were administered proper doses of Epitalon and monitored. One month post-administration, they showed dramatic improvement in physiological parameters. At the molecular level, the chromosomes showed a higher length of telomeres, possibly due to enhanced telomerase activity. The treated animals showed the formation of new neurons, growth in the size of the spleen, and regained the sense of smell.
Clinical trials conducted on the peptide have shown improvement in the functionality of the organs.
The tetrapeptide has shown a crucial effect of increasing telomere length by enhancing telomerase activity, thereby helping to reverse aging.
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