The Best Peptides for Hair Growth

The Best Peptides for Hair Growth

Hair loss is evident in men and women, but men experience it more frequently. Alopecia is the medical term for hair loss and has degrees of severity. Hair loss on the scalp and body can either be temporary or permanent. Androgenic Alopecia is hair loss caused by genetics; it worsens with age and can result in baldness.

Other causes of hair loss may be medical conditions, hormonal changes, and medications and supplements used to treat cancer, depression, heart problems, arthritis, etc. Furthermore, hair loss can be caused by stress, head radiation therapy, certain hairstyles, and treatments. However, age, diabetes, lupus, and poor nutrition are all significant risk factors for hair loss. Hair loss is widespread in all ages and can affect children and the elderly.

Scientists used treatments now shown to be ineffective in stopping hair loss and stimulating growth. However, research is developing to show that peptides suitable for hair growth exist. They are making it possible to gain access to adequate and simple supplementary treatments for hair loss.

 

The best peptides for the prevention of hair loss and substantial hair growth

There are many peptides used to prevent hair loss and stimulate growth. However, research shows that the following are the best peptides for hair growth:

AHK-Cu: AHK-Cu is a tripeptide that contains copper. It is found in mammalian blood and is essential for growth regulation, death, and vascular endothelial cells. According to research, AHK-Cu is effective for the prevention and enhancement of hair loss and hair growth. This is accomplished by increasing the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and endothelial cells, which promotes nutrient supply to hair follicles.

AHK-Cu stimulates blood vessel growth, which keeps the hair healthy, long, and firm. Furthermore, AHK-Cu prevents hair loss by slowing the transforming growth factor beta’s activities, reducing dihydrotestosterone’s effect on hair loss. AHK-Cu prevents hair loss while protecting hair follicles from negative stress by downregulating the effects of dihydropteroate. Furthermore, AHK-Cu increases hair thickness and size while also extending hair lifespan. Because of its products and functions, AHK-Cu is regarded as one of the best peptides for hair.

PTD-DBM: The Protein Transduction Domain-fused Disheveled Binding Motif (PTD-DBM) prevents hair loss and promotes growth. PTD-DBM prevents hair loss by interfering with CXXC5 and Dvl protein-protein interactions, extending the anagen phase of hair follicles. This effect encourages hair growth, strength, and health while preventing hair loss.

PTD-DBM stimulates Wnt/-catenin signaling, which increases hair follicle cellular proliferation, promoting the formation of new hair follicles and the growth of existing follicles.

GHRP-2: Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide (GHRP-2), or Pralmorelin, is a growth hormone secretagogue/growth hormone secretagogue receptor. GHRP-2 can stimulate the pituitary gland’s release of human growth hormone.

Following the ineffectiveness of DHT-blockers, one of the leading causes of hair loss is a lack or low level of Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). GHRP-2, on the other hand, is regarded as the best hair peptide because it prevents hair loss and promotes hair growth by positively modulating insulin-like growth factor 1. (IGF-1).

Thymosin Beta-4 (TB-500): Thymosin Beta-4, which thrives in human and animal cells, is synthesized as TB-500. TB-500 increases angiogenesis and the growth of new blood cells from pre-existing vessels by four to six folds. In addition, the peptide attracts endothelial cells and produces enzymes required for extracellular matrix degradation.

Initial research has shown that TB-500 promotes hair growth by influencing the active phases of the hair follicle cycle, such as stem cell migration and their progeny to the follicle’s base, extracellular matrix remodeling, and differentiation. The peptide also increases the duration of hair growth in the anagen phase. Furthermore, TB-500 is the best peptide for hair because it promotes hair regrowth and accelerates hair growth.

BPC-157: Body protection compound (BPC)-157 is a fragment of the parent protein, body protection compound (BPC), extracted and purified from gastric juice. BPC-157 is regarded as one of the best peptides for hair because it stimulates the production of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen by increasing fibroblast recruitment.

Furthermore, BPC-157 promotes vascular growth by activating the VEGFR2 pathway and accelerating endothelial cell growth and proliferation. These are necessary for hair follicle growth, multiplication, and longevity, thereby preventing hair loss and improving hair density and overall health.

CJC-1295 DAC: CJC-1295 with added DAC is a synthetic fragment of growth hormone-releasing hormone that increases plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormone. CJC-1295 DAC is one of the best hair peptides because it promotes hair growth, prevents hair loss, and maintains hair density and color. This is accomplished by actively regulating physiological levels of growth hormone while increasing production. It also indirectly stimulates the production of hormones such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which is required for active hair growth.

 

Conclusion

The peptides listed above are thought to be the best for hair growth because of their ability to stop hair loss, encourage hair growth, and improve overall hair health. These peptides, however, are just a few from a long list of valuable peptides for hair growth. Scientists are still looking into the various mechanisms of action these peptides can use to impact hair growth positively.

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

Peptides Used to Promote Healthy Skin

Peptides Used to Promote Healthy Skin

The skin is the largest organ in the human body and performs numerous essential functions, but it is also vulnerable to various skin-harming infections and diseases. The skin is a barrier against thermal, physical, and mechanical injury and obstructive substances. It helps retain moisture and provides a sensory organ for temperature and touch. Furthermore, the skin acts as a temperature regulator, an immunization organ that detects diseases, and produces Vitamin D. The functions our skin provides go on and on.

Over time, cosmetic industries have sought various means to improve the robustness of skin functions. As scientists and researchers have studied peptide effects on skin health, substantial progress has been made. One of the goals of peptide discovery is to amass the ability to improve facial glow, elasticity, firmness, and smoothness of the complexion without invasive or expensive medical treatments.

These peptides act through various mechanisms, including carrier, signaling, neurotransmitter inhibition, and enzyme inhibition. These action mechanisms work together to increase collagen secretion and decrease disintegration.

 

The best peptides for skin and improving its functions

Aging is a significant threat to the skin resulting from declining collagen production as the body ages. Following this effect, the skin is exposed to various infections and diseases, which can cause grievous harm to the extremities. According to research, the following peptides are the best for the skin and have few or no side effects.

Syn-AKE (Topical): It is one of the best peptides for skin and is also known as dipeptide di-amino-butyryl benzyl amide di-acetate or tripeptide-3. Syn-AKE is the synthetic equivalent of Waglerin-1 peptide, a Temple Viper Venom derivative. According to studies, Syn-AKE can reduce the frequency of muscle motility and cellular mobility, resulting in smoother skin. Syn-AKE is a potent acetylcholine antagonist. The peptide has anti-aging effects by preventing acetylcholine from binding to its receptors. It reduces wrinkle prevalence and fine lines, relaxes facial muscles, and smoothens the skin covering the muscles. It is worth noting that the peptide works similarly to Botox, preventing wrinkles and comparatively improving skin firmness and elasticity.

Melanotan 1 (MT-1): Melanotan 1 is a peptide derived from the alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. The peptide effectively treats patients with erythropoietic protoporphyrin, preventing phototoxicity and other sun-induced skin damage. According to research, Melanotan 1 is the best peptide for the skin because it is used for tanning it under high UV exposure, protecting it from damage and potential melanomas.

Thymosin Alpha-1: Thymosin Alpha-1 is a peptide derivative of thymus gland tissue that is considered the best peptide for the skin due to its potent immune function influencer. The peptide also has unwavering antifungal properties.

Dendritic cells can be found in almost every body organ, including the skin. By increasing the production and maturation of dendritic cells, the peptide protects against fungal attacks and infections. In cases of fungal attacks or disease on the skin, the cells stimulate T-helper cells, improving skin health.

GHK-Cu: GHK-Cu is a copper peptide found in saliva, urine, and plasma, with anti-aging and wound-healing properties. The peptide also helps to prevent bacterial infections, inhibit free radicals, stimulate collagen synthesis, and improve skin and fibroblast health.

GHK-Cu is an effective skin health peptide because it promotes dermal regeneration by increasing collagen production, which includes the breakdown of collagen, extracellular matrix, and glycosaminoglycan components. The peptide accomplishes this by attracting endothelial cells, immune cells, and fibroblasts. Cosmetic companies use this peptide in skincare products because it improves skin elasticity, firmness, and tightening. It shields the skin from UV rays, reduces wrinkles and fine lines, and reduces hyperpigmentation.

Furthermore, the peptide reduces scar formation, smooths rough skin, prevents hypertrophic healing, and repairs the structure of aged skin. GHK-Cu also promotes angiogenesis and accelerates wound healing at injury sites. Notably, the peptide induces angiogenesis via its cauterization effect in skin burn conditions.

Argireline: Argireline is a SNAP-25 fragment derivative. Due to its anti-wrinkling and anti-aging properties, it is a valuable peptide for skin enhancement. Argireline decreases muscle motility, reducing wrinkles and fine lines caused by aging and facial expressions. The peptide also increases collagen production. Argireline improves skin elasticity, moisture retention, smoothness, and texture by increasing collagen production.

Finally, the best peptides for the skin are not limited to the ones mentioned above; the list goes on. Promoting skin health is critical, which has prompted scientists to research peptides that benefit the skin with no side effects. However, research is ongoing into how these peptides can improve skin health and function.

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

Enhancing Muscle Growth with the Help of Peptides

Enhancing Muscle Growth with the Help of Peptides

Over the years, public demand has motivated organizations and their researchers to develop new and more effective ways for individuals to quickly gain lean muscle, lose significant body weight, and be generally fit. Proper diet and regular exercise remain at the top of the list for almost all these goals. However, numerous factors can limit muscle growth and overall body composition.

Researchers have discovered the use of peptides to achieve most of these goals. Studies are still underway, but peptides promise to be the solution of the future for building the body, burning fat, enhancing lean muscle, and promoting muscle gain.

 

What are the best peptides for muscle growth?

Growth hormone secretagogues are targeted as the best peptides for muscle growth because they can activate the synthesis and release of Human Growth Hormone (HGH). HGH is essential for indirectly increasing muscle gain and decreasing body fat.

The secretagogues of growth hormones cause significant changes in body composition, recovery, muscle gain, and exercise performance. As a result, the following peptides are regarded as the best for muscle growth due to their HGH compositions:

Follistatin-344: Follistatin is a synthetic version of a naturally occurring body protein. The TGF-1 family protein known as myostatin is a naturally occurring substance that prevents new muscle gain. Research shows that Follistatin is an effective myostatin inhibitor, one factor that makes it the best peptide for muscle growth.

Follistatin also promotes muscle gain by increasing the number and mass of muscle fibers, and it does so without the need for other muscle-building factors such as diet, exercise, etc. Follistatin’s ability to increase muscle growth and strength is proving to be an effective method for treating muscular dystrophy. When administered intradermally, Follistatin also has anti-inflammatory effects in muscular dystrophies like Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Follistatin is one of the best peptides for muscle growth because of its unique functions.

ACE-031: This protein inactivates myostatin by binding to type IIB activism receptor (ACVR2B) and immunoglobulin G1-Fc (IgG1-Fc). This action is critical in treating neuromuscular and muscle-wasting disorders such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, which results in significant hair growth. Furthermore, the peptide protects muscles from metabolic damage and promotes the vascularization of muscle tissues. The peptide accomplishes this by inhibiting myostatin-regulatory growth, oxidative damage, and fatigue onset.

ACE-031 is one of the best peptides for muscle growth because it inhibits myostatin for hair growth and promotes oxidative respiration, improving muscle thermodynamics. This peptide boosts muscle function, increases lean body mass, and lowers fat accumulation.

Mechano-Growth Factor (MGF): Mechano-growth Factor is an IGF-1 isoform important in muscle remodeling, cellular proliferation, and survival. MGF accelerates muscle cell healing by regulating macrophages. MGF, according to studies, causes hypertrophy and muscle repair by activating muscle stem cells known as satellite cells.

Scientists believe that MGF can improve muscle health in degenerative diseases and increase lean body mass by enhancing the benefits of exercise in muscles. This finding indicates a lower prevalence of obesity and other health risks. 

IGF-1 LR3: It is derived from the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) protein, which is required for cell division, proliferation, and cell-to-cell communication. In mouse models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, research shows that IGF-1 LR3 and other IGF-1 derivatives play a critical role in mitigating the side effects of myostatin, thereby protecting muscle cells and reducing apoptosis.

IGF-1 LR3’s efficacy on myostatin is due to its stability, and it acts to stimulate MyoD—a muscle protein activated during exercise or tissue damage, inducing hypertrophy.

GHRP-2: Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide (GHRP-2) is a portion of the growth hormone secretagogue/growth hormone secretagogue receptor, also known as Pralmorelin. GHRP-2 is among the best peptides for muscle growth because it promotes muscle gain via two mechanisms: increasing protein synthesis and accumulation and decreasing protein degradation.

According to studies, GHRP-2 reduces muscle atrophy by repressing the atrogin-1 and MuRF1 proteins, which regulate muscle degradation pathways. Furthermore, the peptide promotes muscle protein synthesis by stimulating growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. Because of the combined effect of decreased protein disintegration and increased synthesis, GHRP-2 is one of the best peptides for muscle growth.

Finally, the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) peptides are thought to be the best for muscle gain because they actively stimulate the human growth hormone, resulting in muscle growth and fat loss. The list of effective peptides for muscle growth is long. Researchers are constantly integrating and running clinical trials to determine the best peptides for muscle growth with no side effects or other health-harming effects.

 

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

Semaglutide Peptides for Weight Management and Appetite Control

Semaglutide Peptides for Weight Management and Appetite Control

 

Semaglutide is a peptide and a prescription medication available in both US and EU for managing type 2 diabetes and obesity.

The medication is an agonist to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in the pancreas, the brain, and other organs. The effects of the drug are similar to GLP-1, a peptide hormone naturally produced by the intestines. It’s an incretin, meaning it stimulates insulin secretion.

Depending on the dosage, Semaglutide peptide can have different benefits, which range from reducing blood sugar levels and improving pancreatic beta cell function to suppressing appetite and supporting weight loss.

Semaglutide is also a subject of extensive research regarding other potential benefits, such as reducing pancreatic beta cell apoptosis and exhibiting neuroprotective properties.

Semaglutide for improved blood sugar control

Semaglutide was first approved in 2018 to manage high blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes.[1] It works by activating the GLP-1 receptors in the pancreatic beta cells, stimulating insulin synthesis and release.[2]

The stimulating effect on insulin synthesis is the primary mechanism via which Semaglutide lowers both fasting and postprandial glucose levels. 

A meta-analysis of 26 RCTs reveals that oral and injectable Semaglutide can effectively lower the fasting blood sugar levels and markers for long-term glucose control, such as HbA1c, in patients with type 2 diabetes.[3]

In addition to stimulating insulin secretion, Semaglutide reduces glucagon release and suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis.[4] These effects are confirmed by studies in non-diabetic patients, which lasted up to 12 weeks and showed over 38% reduction in blood sugar levels compared to a placebo after a carbohydrate-rich breakfast.[5]

The researchers also report that Semaglutide effectively slowed down the speed of gastric emptying during the first hour after a meal compared to a placebo. 

The scientists suggested that this effect of Semaglutide may contribute to a more gradual release of glucose into the blood after a meal and better glycemic control. Yet, the overall speed of gastric emptying over the entire 5-hour monitoring period after the meal was not affected. 

A significant factor that helps Semaglutide stand out compared to other antidiabetic medications is that it can reduce hyperglycemia without causing hypoglycemia. 

The risk of hypoglycemia is not higher when compared to a placebo because Semaglutide stimulates insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner.[6] In addition, the inhibition of glucagon release also does not occur under hypoglycemic conditions.

 

Semaglutide for weight management and appetite control

Another significant advantage of Semaglutide over other medications for diabetes is that it stimulates insulin secretion without leading to weight gain. Most individuals with diabetes experience weight loss while taking the medication.

This is why Semaglutide is also officially approved as a chronic weight management medication for overweight or obese adults suffering from at least one weight-related condition.[7] Such conditions include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, etc.

Studies show that Semaglutide significantly reduces ad libitum energy intake, which results in weight loss in the long term. In one trial, obese individuals lost 5 kg on average for 12 weeks without restricting their energy intake.[8]

Instead, Semaglutide injections reduced hunger and food cravings, improved control of eating, and reduced the patient’s preference for high-fat foods. This resulted in a 24% reduction in daily energy intake.

Semaglutide helps reduce hunger and cravings by activating the GLP-1 receptors in the brain, which play a major role in modulating appetite and reward-related behavior.[9]

Furthermore, the potential of Semaglutide to slow down gastric emptying within the first hour of having a meal may also contribute to a reduced ad libitum energy intake.

 

Stimulation of pancreatic beta cell survival and proliferation

Preliminary studies conducted in vitro and in test animals reveal that Semaglutide may stimulate pancreatic beta cells’ survival and proliferation.

These potential effects are of significant interest since patients with type 2 diabetes often suffer pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and apoptosis in the long term.[10]

Animal research suggests that Semaglutide may help reverse the harmful changes of obesity and insulin resistance on pancreatic beta cells and stimulate their proliferation.[11] It is important to note that human beta cells have a limited capacity to increase.

Researchers reveal that many in vitro studies also report that GLP-1 antagonists, such as Semaglutide, may protect pancreatic beta cells from apoptosis.[12] 

Several potential mechanisms are involved in the protective effect of Semaglutide, and one of the most prominent is reducing the overload on the endoplasmic reticulum of the beta cells in diabetic conditions. 

GLP-1 receptor activation may also help stimulate autophagy, which prevents beta cell injury and death by protecting against inflammation and oxidative stress.

Although many of these studies are in human islets, human studies are lacking, and the relevance of these mechanisms for type 2 diabetes patients remains to be proven. This is because technologies to assess in 3D the correct beta cell mass in vivo in humans are yet to be developed.

 

Semaglutide for the neuroprotective benefits

Interestingly, Parkinson’s disease and type 2 diabetes share several genetic susceptibilities, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms in the growth factor signaling kinase gene Akt.[13] This has sparked interest in researching the potential effects of diabetes medications for managing Parkinson’s disease.

Currently, other GLP-1 receptor agonists, such as Exendin-4, have already shown protective effects on Parkinson’s patients in phase II clinical trials. The benefits lasted up to 3 months after discontinuing the medication.[14]

Another GLP-1 antagonist, Liraglutide, is also currently being tested in a phase II trial in Parkinson’s patients.[16] 

The research regarding the potential neuroprotective effects of Semaglutide is still in its infancy, but many laboratory studies in animal models of PD show promising results.[15] The experiments report that Semaglutide has neuroprotective effects and increases the survival of the dopaminergic neurons, the apoptosis of which is associated with the development of Parkinson’s.

In animals, Semaglutide alleviated the chronic inflammatory responses in the brain, reduced lipid peroxidation, and increased the expression of growth factors that protect dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and striatum.

Clinical trials investigating the potential neuroprotective effects of Semaglutide will soon follow and will explore the potential benefits of the medication outside of treating obesity and type 2 diabetes.

 

References:


  1. Dhillon S. Semaglutide: First Global Approval. Drugs. 2018 Feb;78(2):275-284. DOI: 10.1007/s40265-018-0871-0. PMID: 29363040.
  2. Hou Y, Ernst SA, Heidenreich K, Williams JA. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is present in pancreatic acinar cells and regulates amylase secretion through cAMP. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Jan 1;310(1):G26-33. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00293.2015. Epub 2015 Nov 5. PMID: 26542397; PMCID: PMC4698438.
  3. Zaazouee MS, Hamdallah A, Helmy SK, Hasabo EA, Sayed AK, Gbreel MI, Elmegeed AA, Aladwan H, Elshanbary AA, Abdel-Aziz W, Elshahawy IM, Rabie S, Elkady S, Ali AS, Ragab KM, Nourelden AZ. Semaglutide for the treatment of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of safety and efficacy outcomes. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2022 Jun;16(6):102511. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2022.102511. Epub 2022 May 20. PMID: 35623229.
  4. Mahapatra MK, Karuppasamy M, Sahoo BM. Semaglutide, a glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist with cardiovascular benefits for management of type 2 diabetes. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2022 Jun;23(3):521-539. DOI: 10.1007/s11154-021-09699-1. Epub 2022 Jan 7. PMID: 34993760; PMCID: PMC8736331.
  5. Hjerpsted JB, Flint A, Brooks A, Axelsen MB, Kvist T, Blundell J. Semaglutide improves postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism, and delays first-hour gastric emptying in subjects with obesity. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018 Mar;20(3):610-619. DOI: 10.1111/dom.13120. Epub 2017 Oct 27. PMID: 28941314; PMCID: PMC5836914.
  6. Smits MM, Van Raalte DH. Safety of Semaglutide. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 Jul 7;12:645563. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.645563. Erratum in: Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 Nov 10;12:786732. PMID: 34305810; PMCID: PMC8294388.
  7. Mares AC, Chatterjee S, Mukherjee D. Semaglutide for weight loss and cardiometabolic risk reduction in overweight/obesity. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2022 Jul 1;37(4):350-355. DOI: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000955. Epub 2022 Feb 16. PMID: 35175229.
  8. Blundell J, Finlayson G, Axelsen M, Flint A, Gibbons C, Kvist T, Hjerpsted JB. Effects of once-weekly Semaglutide on appetite, energy intake, control of eating, food preference and body weight in subjects with obesity. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017 Sep;19(9):1242-1251. DOI: 10.1111/dom.12932. Epub 2017 May 5. PMID: 28266779; PMCID: PMC5573908.
  9. van Bloemendaal L, IJzerman RG, Ten Kulve JS, Barkhof F, Konrad RJ, Drent ML, Veltman DJ, Diamant M. GLP-1 receptor activation modulates appetite- and reward-related brain areas in humans. Diabetes. 2014 Dec;63(12):4186-96. DOI: 10.2337/db14-0849. Epub 2014 Jul 28. PMID: 25071023.
  10. Tomita T. Apoptosis in pancreatic β-islet cells in Type 2 diabetes. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2016 Aug 2;16(3):162-79. DOI: 10.17305/bjbms.2016.919. Epub 2016 May 22. PMID: 27209071; PMCID: PMC4978108.
  11. Marinho TS, Martins FF, Cardoso LEM, Aguila MB, Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA. Pancreatic islet cells disarray, apoptosis, and proliferation in obese mice. The role of Semaglutide treatment. Biochimie. 2022 Feb;193:126-136. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2021.10.017. Epub 2021 Nov 4. PMID: 34742857.
  12. Costes S, Bertrand G, Ravier MA. Mechanisms of Beta-Cell Apoptosis in Type 2 Diabetes-Prone Situations and Potential Protection by GLP-1-Based Therapies. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 18;22(10):5303. doi: 10.3390/ijms22105303. PMID: 34069914; PMCID: PMC8157542.
  13. Xiromerisiou G, Hadjigeorgiou GM, Papadimitriou A, Katsarogiannis E, Gourbali V, Singleton AB. Association between AKT1 gene and Parkinson’s disease: a protective haplotype. Neurosci Lett. 2008 May 9;436(2):232-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.03.026. Epub 2008 Mar 15. PMID: 18395980; PMCID: PMC8958471.
  14. Athauda D, Maclagan K, Skene SS, Bajwa-Joseph M, Letchford D, Chowdhury K, Hibbert S, Budnik N, Zampedri L, Dickson J, Li Y, Aviles-Olmos I, Warner TT, Limousin P, Lees AJ, Greig NH, Tebbs S, Foltynie T. Exenatide once weekly versus placebo in Parkinson’s disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2017 Oct 7;390(10103):1664-1675. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31585-4. Epub 2017 Aug 3. PMID: 28781108; PMCID: PMC5831666.
  15. Zhang L, Zhang L, Li L, Hölscher C. Semaglutide is Neuroprotective and Reduces α-Synuclein Levels in the Chronic MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease. J Parkinsons Dis. 2019;9(1):157-171. DOI: 10.3233/JPD-181503. PMID: 30741689.
  16. Clinical trial identifier NCT02953665

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

The Best Peptides To Lose Weight

The Best Peptides To Lose Weight

When the body accumulates too much fat, and the body mass index (BMI) rises above the normal range this is known as being overweight or having Obesity. Obesity is caused by various factors, including poor diet, genetic predisposition, physiological and environmental factors, insufficient exercise and physical activity, and energy imbalance.

Obesity is simply the result of excessive fat accumulation caused by eating too many bad fats or carbohydrates. Although carbohydrates are necessary for primary metabolism, muscle growth, contraction, and brain function, too much can cause insulin to overflow the pancreas. The body immediately goes into fat storage mode, resulting in obesity or being considered overweight.

Obesity harms one’s health because it can cause inflammation and metabolic syndrome. As a result, fat accumulation increases while growth hormone signaling is suppressed. Low GH levels affect many metabolic functions, including aging, and threaten muscle strength, heart health, bone density, the DNA system, and cognitive capacity. Extreme conditions can result in death.

These events have prompted scientists and researchers to devote more time and effort to discover the best treatment for obesity and overweight. And over the years, exercise and diet have been the most used methods for treating obesity, which has now been proven ineffective in some people because each body processes food differently. This article will talk about the best peptides to lose weight.

Which Are The Best Peptides To Lose Weight?

AICAR: AICAR is a short peptide with insulin-regulating properties and might be one of the best peptides to lose weight. It is also known as 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside. According to research, the peptide is essential for myocyte function and can reduce adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. AICAR also increases the number of GLUT-4 receptors in muscle tissues, and long-term administration is required for exercise. These actions, in general, help reduce obesity and overweight and promote significant weight loss.

Adipotide: As the name suggests, Adipotide is a fat dissolving peptide that induces fat loss by inducing apoptosis in fat cells. This is accomplished by limiting blood supply to adipose (fat) tissues. Furthermore, regarding weight loss, Adipotide reduces the frequency and quantity of food consumed by influencing appetite.

Epithalon: Epithalon plays an essential role in sleep regulation by restoring circadian rhythm balance. It is worth noting that there is a strong relationship between sleep and overall body composition. As a result, by influencing rest, the peptide indirectly improves body composition. Research shows that Growth hormone production peaks during specific stages of sleep. In this context, Epithalon increases GH release and thus reduces obesity by improving sleep efficiency. The delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide (DSIP) has similar effects to Epithalon and can help to reduce obesity tendencies.

AOD 9604: AOD-9604 is a human growth hormone variant that has been altered and is among the best peptides for weight loss. According to research, it increases fat metabolism and lowers insulin levels in mouse models. According to this study, the efficacy of AOD-9604 in inducing weight loss is three times that of placebo.

The Analogs of the Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone: Fragment 176-191, GRF, Modified-GRF, Sermorelin, CJC-1295, and Tesamorelin are analogues of growth hormone-releasing hormones that significantly increase GH levels, promote bone strength, induce fat disintegration, and muscle growth. It’s worth noting that Tesamorelin is the only human-approved growth hormone-releasing hormone peptide analog. In studies, Tesamorelin has been shown to reduce adiposity by 20% or more in its target population. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that it is far more effective than all other anti-adiposity therapies combined.

MOTS-c: Energy balance and obesity are inextricably linked. MOTS-c indirectly causes weight loss by improving energy balance. MOTS-c enhances the body’s consumption of raw materials at the mitochondrial level. MOTS-c increases exercise capacity while decreasing metabolic stress. All of these are necessary for the start of weight loss.

Melanotan 1 and Melanotan 2: Although these peptides primarily increase sexual arousal, research has shown that they can also positively regulate energy balance. Melanotan peptides work through the melanocortin system to simultaneously boost and decrease energy expenditure and intake. As a result, Melanotan administration downregulates calorie intake to about 400 kcal/day.

Semaglutide: Semaglutide is a GLP-1 analog that lowers blood sugar levels by increasing insulin secretion. The peptides influence and delay gastric emptying and decrease intestinal motility, resulting in reduced appetite, increased fullness, and a slight increase in blood sugar levels. This Semaglutide action indirectly induces weight loss and lowers obesity prevalence.

Finally, the peptides mentioned above both directly and indirectly cause weight loss via various mechanisms of action. Although most of these peptides are being researched, some are being tested in clinical trials to determine their properties.

Biochemical processes play critical roles in weight loss, demonstrating that diet and exercise alone will not suffice. However, studies show that other methods, such as peptides, can be used to activate these biochemical changes. The above peptides are some of the best peptides to lose weight.

While exercise and diet are essential for healthy living and weight management, scientists are looking into alternative ways to directly induce weight loss by influencing the biochemical process in the human system.

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

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The Best Peptides For Depression

The Best Peptides For Depression

Chemical imbalance has long been identified as the leading cause of depression. According to a theory, people with low serotonin, dopamine, or norepinephrine levels are more likely to develop depression. Theoretically, increasing the number of hormones can treat depression. Researchers used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors like Prozac and Zoloft, MAOIs, SNRIs, tricyclic antidepressants, and other medications to return norepinephrine and dopamine levels to normal. While initially successful, they eventually proved ineffective due to the unprecedented changes in the human system and other factors.

Chemical imbalance is not the only cause of depression. Irregular chemical regulation and signaling could also cause depression. As a result, doctors and scientists are working to find alternative treatments for depression.

Neuropeptides are a prime target because they are inextricably linked to various neuropsychiatric disorders. The findings of this study, which is still in its early stages, indicate that specific peptides are crucial and clinically efficient in treating depression and anxiety. This article will talk about the best peptides for depression.

The Best Peptides For Depression And Anxiety

The following peptides are required to combat depression and anxiety. They are Ghrelin, Pinealon, Semax, Selank, PE-22-28, Protirelin, DSIP, Oxytocin, and other hormones.

Oxytocin: Oxytocin is a peptide synthesized in the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. It is a neuropeptide that plays an essential role in anxiety and depression. According to research, Oxytocin administered intravenously can lessen the severity of depression and anxiety in people with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD).

Pinealon: There is a clear link between sleep and depression, and Pinealon administration improves behavioral changes and positively impacts circadian rhythm disorders.

Pinealon also increases the expression of 5-tryptophan hydroxylase, an enzyme that significantly produces serotonin and can influence serotonin concentrations in the brain. In addition, the peptide reverses neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by sleep deprivation and sleep disorders.

Ghrelin: Ghrelin is a peptide that occurs naturally and has antidepressant properties.

High cortisol levels are a significant indicator of stress, anxiety, and depression, though it is unclear whether it is one of the causative agents. On the other hand, the peptide rises in response to elevated cortisol levels. Ghrelin reduces cortisol levels while preventing depression-like behavior and hypomotility.

Tryptophan is a neurotransmitter precursor that is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Ghrelin removal alters tryptophan metabolism, according to research. Ghrelin derivatives such as GHRP-2 and GHRP-6 have comparable effects.

Selank: According to research, the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 plays an essential role in depression and anxiety. According to one study, IL-6 is an effective enhancer in patients with anxiety-asthenic disorder and other psychosomatic conditions characterized by symptoms such as fatigue, pain, headache, high blood pressure, and heart palpitations. IL-6 levels are higher in people with fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, anxiety, or depression. Selank administration, on the other hand, suppresses the gene expression that regulates IL-6 production.

Semax: Depressed people have lower levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factors, according to research. Although it is unknown how BDNF levels cause depression, abnormal BDNF levels, and BDNF receptors have been linked to depression and suicidal behavior.

According to research, increasing BDNF levels can help treat depression. According to the study, semax can increase the stimulation of BDNF levels in the basal forebrain, lowering the prevalence of depression. Furthermore, scientists believe semax can aid in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Protirelin: Protirelin is a naturally occurring peptide hormone with anti-suicidal and anti-depressive properties produced in the hypothalamus. According to studies, Protirelin can reduce severe depression and suicidal ideation by 50% or more and is one of the best peptides for depression.

PE-22-28: PE-22-28 is the synthetic equivalent of Spadina, a naturally occurring peptide. The peptide is the most effective antidepressant with few or no side effects. PE-22-28 works by inducing neurogenesis to restore hippocampal volume and thus prevent depression.

Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide (DSIP): DSIP is a neuropeptide with endocrine and physiological effects on the central nervous system. The peptide regulates corticotropin levels, reduces stress, prevents somatostatin production, keeps blood pressure stable, and influences sleep patterns.

DSIP also prevents changes in monoamine oxidase type A and serotonin levels, implying that the peptide may positively impact depression. Depression is associated with lower DSIP levels, according to research. However, as a peptide that regulates sleep, it has the potential to treat and manage depression. Furthermore, DSIP connects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and can modulate suicidal tendencies.

Finally, numerous research resources clarify how these peptides can be used to treat and manage depression and anxiety. Scientists are still looking for the best peptides for depression, anxiety, and other neuropsychiatric conditions with no side effects.

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not for human or animal consumption. All the information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

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