What is Thymosin Beta 4?
Thymosin Beta 4 or TB-500 is an oligopeptide that is made up of 43 amino acids. It has a molecular weight of approximately 4.9 kDa. This peptide is spread around most of the tissues except the Erythrocytes, i.e., the Red Blood Cells (RBCs).
Initially, this peptide was discovered as a protein isolate from the mammalian thymus gland. It is a member of the Thymosins family that consists of molecules with an acidic nature and lightweight. These molecules can also work in the production of cells. By counteracting the ability of actin proteins or singular monomers to polymerize into thin strands, manipulation can be done in the distinction and motion of the cells.
On the contrary, Thymosin also has the ability to gather the actin monomers, which can further be utilized for permitting or denying the production of the coming filaments. To an extent, this might be successful in inhibiting or facilitating the differentiation of cells like a pluripotent stem cell into another (e.g., bone cells or neurons).
The presence of Thymosin Beta 4 is most prevalent in mammals; thereby, it can be stated that Thymosin molecules have the potential of playing an important function in postnatal development or some tissue’s regeneration.
The formation of new blood vessels and the migration of cells can be manipulated by the influence of TB-500 over actin. This shows that the protein has the potential to repair wounds.
What does Thymosin Beta 4 Do?
Over time, many clinical trials have demonstrated the ability of Thymosin Beta 4 in repairing and regenerating the tissues.
The slowing down or prevention of scar formation, cell death, microbial growth, and inflammation has also been demonstrated by the use of Thymosin Beta 4. The externally derived TB-500 has been shown to speed up repairing the injured cardiac, corneal, and dermal tissues, thereby showing its ability of wound healing.
TB-500 has been studied for its therapeutic potentials, which has shown that it has the ability to repair and regenerate some other tissues in the body like the tissues of the spinal cord, heart, peripheral nervous system, and brain.
Thymosin Beta 4 has also shown the potential of anti-inflammatory properties and the ability to weaken the nitric oxide and the discharge of prostaglandin EP4 in the cell models that were exposed to reactive oxygen species.
Since the Thymosin Beta 4 molecules are also osteoclastogenic molecules, their function is implied in bone production management. They may also possess the ability to enhance the stimulus-response of various interleukins and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the cells of the periodontium.
One study has demonstrated the ability of TB-500 to hinder the activation of NF-κB in the murine macrophages. The release of an anti-inflammatory fragment of a peptide known as the acSDKP7, which is a derivative of TB-500, is also shown to be affected by TB-500.
By mixing the rat’s integrated tissues with TB-500, a significant increase was demonstrated in the release of acSDKP7. The splitting of acSDKP7 from Thymosin Beta 4 is governed by an intricate mechanism that shows a compulsory requirement of the peptidases, which can split only a particular molecules’ fragments and includes the hydrolysis of TB-500 by the meprin – alpha.
Researchers have found Thymosin Beta 4 to be of significant use in the study of different organs’ fibrotic scarring. Recently, a published study has shown a notable reduction in inflammation in rodents affected by pulmonary fibrosis.
The acSDKP7 has also shown a reduction in renal fibrosis in rodents. The treatment using this fragment has been shown to reduce the discharge of some important components of the scar tissue like the fibronectin and collagen and has also shown a reduction in the myofibroblast and migration of macrophages to the damaged sites.
Do TB-500 Heal Wounds?
TB-500 has shown to possess the potential of wound healing when used in topical or intraperitoneal preparation. The collagen discharge and the formation of new blood vessels were shown to be elevated in the treated wounds.
Side Effects associated with Thymosin Beta 4
The researchers had found some common side effects when the peptide was studied in non-human animal subjects. They include potential headaches and nausea, severe fatigue, and lethargy. It has also shown postural/ orthostatic hypotension after injection, which fades away in a couple of minutes.
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