Effects of Pegylated MGF in Muscle Development

by | Sep 12, 2022 | Research

Pegylated MGF peptide is a slightly modified form of insulin-like growth factor 1. (IGF-1). According to research, the peptide improves myoblast (muscle cell) differentiation and proliferation[1].

Pegylation is the process by which polyethylene glycol polymer chains are attached or transferred to molecules and macrostructures such as peptides or vesicles. Pegylation affects derivative interactions, slowing coalescence and degradation, including elimination in vivo.

Pegylation reduces the body’s natural immune response to a foreign body. In this case, Pegylated MGF peptide increases the compound’s half-life in blood by reducing kidney clearance. Because MGF has a short lifespan in blood, Pegylated MGF peptide is an existing compound. Although MGF can survive more extended periods in muscle tissues, it has a short life span.


The Potential Functions of Pegylated MGF Peptide


How Peg MGF Impacts Skeletal Muscles

Strains, sprains, and avulsion injuries are examples of joint muscle sports injuries. These injuries, in most cases, require surgical procedures for repair. The treatment can potentially not work and could prolong recovery and effect results. According to research in mouse models with a muscular injury, the Mechano Growth Factor protects the myoblasts by reducing the expression of certain inflammatory hormones and decreasing oxidative stress[2].

Research by Sun et al. suggests that MGF regulates muscle inflammation and enhances macrophage and neutrophil recruitment to the injury site[3].

A study by an international group of endocrinology researchers proves that MGF activates the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors in the same way as IGF-1[4]. Better energy homeostasis in humans, enhanced lean body mass, and reduced aging result from activating the IGF-1 receptor, suggesting that Pegylated MGF peptide produces an effect identical to IGF-1. The product is a net increase in lean body mass, increased fat metabolism, and activated muscle repair.

Exercising mice, according to research, show a 25% increase in mean muscle fiber size on MGF administration[5]


How Pegylated MGF Peptide Impacts Bone Repair and Growth

Pegylated MGF has shown promise in bone repair rate in rabbits by increasing osteoblast proliferation. Osteoprogenitor cells stimulate and secrete bone matrix and participate in bone mineralization (bone tissue formation).


The Functions of Pegylated MGF Peptide in Heart Muscle Repair

Research results from the University of Illinois, Department of Bioengineering prove that MGF ameliorates apoptosis by cardiac muscle cells following hypoxia[6]. Pegylated MGF peptide recruits cardiac stem cells to the injury site and can induce healing and regeneration following cardiac arrest.

Research has also shown that localized MGF delivery can improve cardiac function by reducing pathologic hypertrophy[7]. Scientists noticed improved hemodynamics and low cardiac remodeling rates in remodeling mice compared to mice without MGF administration. A study by Carpenter et al. shows that MGF in the disease condition of acute myocardial infarction can induce cardiomyocyte injury reduction by approximately 35%. 

Pegylated MGF peptide promotes osteogenic differentiation and the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-2 in human periodontal ligament samples. These factors enable the repair of ligaments attached end to end. They may proffer surrogate extractions and implants, protecting the natural teeth following an injury. Scientists suggest that the peptide can save extricated teeth after surgical reimplantation. 


The Neuroprotective Effects of Pegylated MGF Peptide

A study reviewed by Alexander Walker, Editorial Assistant at BioMed Central, explored the long-term effects of enhanced MGF levels in the central nervous system and brain[8]. The study showed that high MGF levels reduce the effects of age-dependent neuron degeneration. This improved cognitive functions and functions on a peak cognitive performance went into old age. According to the editorial assistant, “MGF potency is age-dependent”.

Mice of ALS treated with MGF show better muscle weakness and decrease the loss of motor neurons. Dłużniewska et al. suggest that MGF expression naturally takes place in the brain following hypoxic injury and is over-expressed in regions of the brain where neuron regeneration is highest[9]. Exogenous MGF can limit the impact of numerous neurological diseases by preventing neuron death in the spinal cord and brain despite the ongoing disease condition. 


How Pegylated MGF Can Potentially help Protect Cartilage

Research shows that MGF betters chondrocyte functions—cells that regulate cartilage deposition and promote health. Mice research proves that MGF increases chondrocyte migration from bone to cartilage where they impact. According to the hypothesis, Pegylated MGF peptide injections directly into infected joints can last for extended periods. 



Despite its wide variety of research applications. Pegylated MGF is a research peptide not intended for therapeutic use or consumption.

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not intended for human or animal consumption. Research chemicals are intended solely for laboratory experimentation and/or in-vitro testing. Bodily introduction of any sort is strictly prohibited by law. All purchases are limited to licensed researchers and/or qualified professionals. All information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.



  1. Kandalla PK, Goldspink G, Butler-Browne G, Mouly V. Mechano Growth Factor E peptide (MGF-E), derived from an isoform of IGF-1, activates human muscle progenitor cells and induces an increase in their fusion potential at different ages. Mech Ageing Dev. 2011 Apr;132(4):154-62. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2011.02.007. Epub 2011 Feb 25. PMID: 21354439.
  2. Zabłocka B, Goldspink PH, Goldspink G, Górecki DC. Mechano-Growth Factor: an important cog or a loose screw in the repair machinery? Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2012 Nov 1;3:131. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2012.00131. PMID: 23125840; PMCID: PMC3485521.
  3. Sun KT, Cheung KK, Au SWN, Yeung SS, Yeung EW. Overexpression of Mechano-Growth Factor Modulates Inflammatory Cytokine Expression and Macrophage Resolution in Skeletal Muscle Injury. Front Physiol. 2018 Jul 26;9:999. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00999. PMID: 30140235; PMCID: PMC6094977.
  4. Janssen JA, Hofland LJ, Strasburger CJ, van den Dungen ES, Thevis M. Potency of Full-Length MGF to Induce Maximal Activation of the IGF-I R Is Similar to Recombinant Human IGF-I at High Equimolar Concentrations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 18;11(3):e0150453. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150453. PMID: 26991004; PMCID: PMC4798685.
  5. Goldspink G. Research on mechano growth factor: its potential for optimising physical training as well as misuse in doping. Br J Sports Med. 2005 Nov;39(11):787-8; discussion 787-8. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2004.015826. PMID: 16244184; PMCID: PMC1725070.
  6. Carpenter V, Matthews K, Devlin G, Stuart S, Jensen J, Conaglen J, Jeanplong F, Goldspink P, Yang SY, Goldspink G, Bass J, McMahon C. Mechano-growth factor reduces loss of cardiac function in acute myocardial infarction. Heart Lung Circ. 2008 Feb;17(1):33-9. doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2007.04.013. Epub 2007 Jun 19. PMID: 17581790.
  7. Peña JR, Pinney JR, Ayala P, Desai TA, Goldspink PH. Localized delivery of mechano-growth factor E-domain peptide via polymeric microstructures improves cardiac function following myocardial infarction. Biomaterials. 2015 Apr;46:26-34. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.12.050. Epub 2015 Jan 16. PMID: 25678113; PMCID: PMC4328136.
  8. Tang JJ, Podratz JL, Lange M, Scrable HJ, Jang MH, Windebank AJ. Mechano growth factor, a splice variant of IGF-1, promotes neurogenesis in the aging mouse brain. Mol Brain. 2017 Jul 7;10(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s13041-017-0304-0. PMID: 28683812; PMCID: PMC5501366.
  9. Dluzniewska J, Sarnowska A, Beresewicz M, Johnson I, Srai SK, Ramesh B, Goldspink G, Górecki DC, Zabłocka B. A strong neuroprotective effect of the autonomous C-terminal peptide of IGF-1 Ec (MGF) in brain ischemia. FASEB J. 2005 Nov;19(13):1896-8. doi: 10.1096/fj.05-3786fje. Epub 2005 Sep 6. PMID: 16144956.