What is PEG-MGF Peptide?
Pegylated Mechano-growth factor (PEG-MGF) is a truncated and partially modified variant of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). It stimulates myoblast (muscle cell) proliferation and differentiation. It has further been explored in increasing endurance, stimulating the function of the immune system, and decreasing cholesterol and total body fat control. PEG-MGF also hastens wound healing by improving immune function related to healing.
Attachment of polyethylene glycol moiety to another chemical compound is termed pegylation. Pegylation increases the plasma stability of a compound like MGF by decreasing its clearance in the kidneys as well as masks its immunogenicity. Pegylation is thus a common, safe, and advantageous modification. MGF has a shorter half-life in blood, contrary to muscles. Hence, pegylation of the peptide overcomes its rapid clearance from the body.
– Skeletal Muscle
– PEG-MGF Research in Heart Muscle Repair
– Bone Repair and Growth
– Protecting Cartilage
– Dental Applications
– PEG-MGF Peptide and Potential Neuroprotective Effects
AKA: Pegylated MGF, Pegylated Mechano Growth Factor
Molecular Formula: C121H200N42O39
Molecular Weight: 2888.16 g/mol
PubChem: SID 178101669
Muscle injuries are frequent in sports and can range from strains and sprains to extreme avulsion injuries. Sometimes they require surgical intervention with a not-so-perfect outcome and prolonged recovery. Murine studies prove that direct injection of MGF in the muscles decreases pro-inflammatory hormone production, reduces oxidative stress, and protects the muscle cells.
Sun et al. also highlighted the regulation of muscle inflammation by MGF and the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to injury sites. The research mentioned above is based on prior reports of induction of IGF-1Ea and IGF-1Eb (both closely related to MGF) by exercise-induced muscle injury.
This receptor stimulation reduces aging, improves lean body mass, and better energy balance in humans. This function suggests that PEG-MGF can produce effects similar to IGF-1 leading to improved muscle repair, enhanced fat metabolism, and overall increases in lean body mass.
MGF increases mean muscle fiber size in exercising mice by about 25% when administered through the intramuscular route. Authors Goldspink and Jakeman consider it a concerning limitation as the peptide would require direct administration into every muscle to treat hypertrophy. The increased plasma stability of PEG-MGF resolves the challenge of multiple intramuscular injections.
PEG-MGF Research in Heart Muscle Repair
Research carried out in the department of bioengineering at the University of Illinois has observed that MGF inhibits hypoxia-induced programmed cell death of cardiac muscles. The peptide promotes regeneration and healing after a cardiac attack by recruiting cardiac stem cells to the site of tissue injury. Rats treated with MGF within eight hours of hypoxia suffered less cell death and greater stem cell recruitment compared to placebo controls. Dr. Doroudian, the lead author of the research, suggests that the nanorod-mediated MGF delivery to the damaged cardiac tissues provides localized, long-term therapy of the bioactive peptide to damaged tissues.
Localized delivery of MGF further controls pathologic hypertrophy post-cardiac arrest. Rats treated with PEG-MGF showed better hemodynamics and less cardiac remodeling than untreated ones. Carpenter et al. have also demonstrated a 35% approximate reduction of cardiomyocyte injury (post-heart attack) upon this peptide treatment.
Bone Repair and Growth
PEG-MGF has been observed to promote osteoblast proliferation and hasten bone repair in rabbits. Rabbits treated with high doses of MGF showed equivalent bone healing in just four weeks compared to controls in six weeks duration. The findings highlight the potential to use the peptide in faster bone healing in patients.
MGF can improve the function of chondrocytes, the cells essential for cartilage health and deposition. Studies in mice show that MGF promotes the migration of chondrocytes from bone, their site of origin, into cartilage where they function. PEG-MGF is suitable for this milieu because it could be injected into compromised joint spaces and remain for an extended duration. Theoretically, a single injection could be effective for weeks or even months compared to the limited duration of standard MGF in minutes or perhaps hours.
Human periodontal ligament cell culture studies indicate that the pegylated peptide can improve osteogenic differentiation and enhance MMP-1 and MMP-2 expression. These factors improve the repair of the ligaments that attach the tooth to bone and provide alternatives to tooth extractions and implants. The peptide can even salvage damaged or avulsed teeth after they get surgically re-implanted.
PEG-MGF Peptide and Potential Neuroprotective Effects
Alexander Walker, Editorial Assistant at BioMed Central, has recently reviewed a study based on the long-term effects of elevated levels of MGF in the brain and central nervous system. The work reveals how increased MGF decreases the effects of age-related neuron degeneration. Thus the mice administered with the peptide maintain their cognitive ability and function optimally for long into old age. As per Walker, “the efficacy of MGF in the brain is age-dependent,” as the mice in the study had shown better outcomes initially and over the long-term, if the peptide overexpression occurred earlier in life.
MGF use improves muscle weakness and decreases the loss of motor neurons in murine models of ALS. According to Dluzniewska et al., it is naturally produced in the brain after hypoxic injury and is over-expressed in the segments with highest neuronal damage. External MGF administration can help to alleviate the impact of various neurological diseases. PEG-MGF exhibits minimal side effects, low oral bioavailability, and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice. Per kg dosage in mice does not match up to humans.