Retatrutide (6mg)

$175.00

Retatrutide peptides are Synthesized and Lyophilized in the USA.

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SKU: Retatrutide-6mg Category:

Description

Retatrutide Peptide

Retatrutide, also represented as LY3437943 or NOP2Y096GV, is a synthetic peptide made of 39-amino-acids, which may function as an agonist of three distinct endogenous peptides:
● gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)
● glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)
● glucagon (GCG)

The sequence of Retatrutide appears to be based primarily on the sequence of GIP.[1] At the same time, the peptide is also modified to exert affinity towards the receptors of GLP-1  and GCG, albeit still biased towards the receptors for GIP.[2] Furthermore, Retatrutide has been chemically modified with a fatty di-acid C20 moiety for extended chemical stability.[3]

Specifications

Molecular Formula: C223H343F3N46O70

Molecular Weight: 4731.55 g/mol

Sequence: YA1QGTFTSDYSIL2LDKK4AQA1AFIEYLLEGGPSSGAPPPS3

Retatrutide Research

Retratrutide General Research
Research findings suggest that via the agonist action of the peptide, mirroring the GIP, GLP-1, and GCG hormones, it may hold the potential to activate associated receptors in a variety of cells, including those within the nervous system, gastric tract, liver, pancreas, and fat cells. Many studies link GLP receptors with the suppression of hunger signals, uptake of satiety signals in the CNS, and the potential action of regulating hormone synthesis in pancreatic cells. GLP-1 receptor activation is posited to exert similar potential actions, possibly slowing down gastric motility and regulating the production of various signaling molecules in the small intestine. GCG receptor activation is also hypothesized to slow down gastric motility, albeit its main potential action when triggered by Retatrutide may involve cells found in liver and adipose tissue. Consequently, GCG receptor activation is believed to potentially increase thermogenesis and energy expenditure. GLP-1 receptor activation in adipose tissue may also occur, as it is posited to cause endocrine actions.

Retatrutide and Adipose Tissue
Retatrutide may exert several actions on adipose tissue, including potentially increased fat cell thermogenesis and synthesis of fat cell-derived hormones. For instance, studies suggest that the activation of GLP-1 receptors by peptides such as Retatrutide may benefit the synthesis of the satiety hormone, also known as leptin. Leptin normally decreases as fat tissue decreases, but Retatrutide may potentially ameliorate the leptin reduction during fat loss due to GLP-1 agonism. Researchers have posited that “preservation of free leptin levels is involved in GLP-1RA-mediated maintenance of weight loss.[4]

Emerging studies indicate that Retatrutide might also increase thermogenesis by potentially activating GCG receptors in adipose tissue. This may conceivably extend to boosting the organism’s overall capacity for thermogenesis by potentially engaging the energy-expending processes in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The stimulation of BAT by Retatrutide might also elevate the metabolic rate through an uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This protein dissipates the proton gradient in mitochondria, thereby releasing energy as heat. This mechanism may not only utilize stored fats but might also potentially enhance the oxidation of circulating glucose, lipids, and amino acids, thereby contributing to an increase in overall energy expenditure. Additionally, the influence of Retatrutide on GCG receptors is believed to potentially initiate a transformation of white fat cells into beige fat cells. Such cells have been linked with heat-generated caloric expenditure. This may have downstream impacts including a potential increase in both thermogenesis and metabolic rate. The transition of white adipose cells to beige cells may involve the induction of UCP1-dependent non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolic futile cycles, such as those involving creatine and succinate, which are thought to dissipate energy as heat. Moreover, Retatrutide might enhance the expression of genes associated with thermogenesis in brown and beige fat cells, which may promote the formation and function of these cells in burning calories.[5] Clinical experiments suggest that the potential combination of increased thermogenesis and reduced satiety (related to higher leptin levels and other potential mechanisms) may result in an overall reduction of total fat mass.[6]

Retatrutide and Liver Cells
Liver tissue is highly metabolically active and may play a major role in overall metabolism and homeostasis. Studies hypothesized that Retatrutide may augment this activity by targeting GCG receptors in hepatic cells, potentially leading to enhanced fat breakdown and an increased metabolic rate within the liver.[5] This might occur through mechanisms such as hepatic futile cycling, improved mitochondrial efficiency, and the release of thermogenic substances like fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and stomach acids, potentially elevating energy expenditure.

Further, stimulating GCG receptors in the liver with Retatrutide may initiate metabolic processes that induce weight loss. This may involve the potential diminution of liver fat content facilitated by increased lipid oxidation, elevated activity of metabolic enzymes, and the promotion of mitochondrial biogenesis. Ultimately, the researchers comment that “glucagon-GCGR system affects key metabolically relevant organs (including the liver and white and brown adipose tissue) to boost whole-body thermogenic capacity.

Retatrutide and The Central Nervous System
It is hypothesized by research that Retatrutide might interact with GLP-1 and GIP receptors located in the central nervous system, by which it may potentially influence appetite and energy regulation.[7,8] Such stimulation may indirectly activate neurons within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, which are believed to express these receptors and produce substances like the amphetamine-regulated transcript. This action may conceivably suppress the secretion of hunger-promoting peptides, including neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP). Additionally, it is suggested that Retatrutide might activate GIP receptors in other brain areas, such as the paraventricular and ventromedial nuclei, potentially amplifying the signals that promote feelings of fullness. It is also conceivable that agonism at GIP may enhance the transport of substances aimed at the brain regions controlling energy balance, indicating a complex mechanism for regulating metabolic function via central neural mechanisms.

Retatrutide and The Gastrointestinal Tract
Retatrutide may potentially interact with gastrointestinal tissues and cells, leading to a possible delay in gastric emptying and might also impact the release of certain gastric hormones.[9] This interaction is hypothesized to occur by targeting GLP-1 and GCG receptors in the stomach and small intestinal cells. It is suggested that when Retatrutide binds to these receptors, it may slow the movement of food through the digestive tract via delayed contraction. Moreover, the stimulation of these receptors may affect the secretion of various gastrointestinal hormones. For example, gastrin, which plays a role in the control of gastric acid secretion and motility, and ghrelin, commonly referred to as the hunger hormone, may both be influenced, potentially altering gastric motility. Research further indicates that activation of the GLP-1 receptor could help sustain elevated levels of peptide YY (PYY) 3-36 during weight loss. The mechanisms behind these actions may involve modulation of neural pathways within the brain that regulate hunger and energy homeostasis, highlighting its potential in metabolic regulation.[4]

Retatrutide and Pancreatic Cells
It is hypothesized that Retatrutide may engage with receptors for GLP-1 and GIP within the pancreatic tissue, which may lead to an increase in insulin production by beta cells and a concurrent decrease in glucagon secretion from alpha cells, all in response to glucose levels. Insulin and glucagon are posited to be critical hormones for glucose regulation, as insulin may lower glucose by promoting its uptake and storage. In contrast, glucagon appears to raise glucose levels by stimulating its release from hepatic stores. The interactions of Retatrutide with these receptors might modulate these hormonal responses, adjusting glucose levels more finely in the presence of varying glucose concentrations.[10] This hypothesis has been further investigated in experimental settings, where Retatrutide appears to reduce levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Data suggest that this peptide might reduce HbA1c by roughly 2%. This reduction indicates a possible avenue for pursuit in hyperglycemia-related research, as these findings highlight Retatrutide’s potential on insulin and glucagon secretion via pancreas cell regulation.[11]

Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not intended for human or animal consumption. Research chemicals are intended solely for laboratory experimentation and/or in-vitro testing. Bodily introduction of any sort is strictly prohibited by law. All purchases are limited to licensed researchers and/or qualified professionals. All information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.

 

References

  1. Jakubowska A, Roux CWL, Viljoen A. The Road towards Triple Agonists: Glucagon-Like Peptide 1, Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide and Glucagon Receptor – An Update. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2024 Feb;39(1):12-22. doi: 10.3803/EnM.2024.1942. Epub 2024 Feb 14. PMID: 38356208; PMCID: PMC10901658.
  2. Folli F, Finzi G, Manfrini R, Galli A, Casiraghi F, Centofanti L, Berra C, Fiorina P, Davalli A, La Rosa S, Perego C, Higgins PB. Mechanisms of action of incretin receptor based dual- and tri-agonists in pancreatic islets. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2023 Nov 1;325(5):E595-E609. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00236.2023. Epub 2023 Sep 20. PMID: 37729025; PMCID: PMC10874655.
  3. Doggrell SA. Is retatrutide (LY3437943), a GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon receptor agonist a step forward in the treatment of diabetes and obesity? Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2023 May;32(5):355-359. doi: 10.1080/13543784.2023.2206560. Epub 2023 Apr 24. PMID: 37086147.
  4. Ard J, Fitch A, Fruh S, Herman L. Weight Loss and Maintenance Related to the Mechanism of Action of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists. Adv Ther. 2021 Jun;38(6):2821-2839. doi: 10.1007/s12325-021-01710-0. Epub 2021 May 11. PMID: 33977495; PMCID: PMC8189979.
  5. Conceição-Furber E, Coskun T, Sloop KW, Samms RJ. Is Glucagon Receptor Activation the Thermogenic Solution for Treating Obesity? Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 Apr 25;13:868037. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.868037. PMID: 35547006; PMCID: PMC9081793.
  6. Jastreboff AM, Kaplan LM, Frías JP, Wu Q, Du Y, Gurbuz S, Coskun T, Haupt A, Milicevic Z, Hartman ML; Retatrutide Phase 2 Obesity Trial Investigators. Triple-Hormone-Receptor Agonist Retatrutide for Obesity – A Phase 2 Trial. N Engl J Med. 2023 Aug 10;389(6):514-526. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2301972. Epub 2023 Jun 26. PMID: 37366315.
  7. van Bloemendaal L, IJzerman RG, Ten Kulve JS, Barkhof F, Konrad RJ, Drent ML, Veltman DJ, Diamant M. GLP-1 receptor activation modulates appetite- and reward-related brain areas in humans. Diabetes. 2014 Dec;63(12):4186-96. doi: 10.2337/db14-0849. Epub 2014 Jul 28. PMID: 25071023.
  8. Samms RJ, Sloop KW, Gribble FM, Reimann F, Adriaenssens AE. GIPR Function in the Central Nervous System: Implications and Novel Perspectives for GIP-Based Therapies in Treating Metabolic Disorders. Diabetes. 2021 Sep;70(9):1938-1944. doi: 10.2337/dbi21-0002. Epub 2021 Jun 27. PMID: 34176786; PMCID: PMC8576420.
  9. Urva S, O’Farrell L, Du Y, Loh MT, Hemmingway A, Qu H, Alsina-Fernandez J, Haupt A, Milicevic Z, Coskun T. The novel GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon receptor agonist retatrutide delays gastric emptying. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2023 Sep;25(9):2784-2788. doi: 10.1111/dom.15167. Epub 2023 Jun 13. PMID: 37311727.
  10. Zhao X, Wang M, Wen Z, Lu Z, Cui L, Fu C, Xue H, Liu Y, Zhang Y. GLP-1 Receptor Agonists: Beyond Their Pancreatic Effects. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 Aug 23;12:721135. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.721135. PMID: 34497589; PMCID: PMC8419463.
  11. Rosenstock J, Frias J, Jastreboff AM, Du Y, Lou J, Gurbuz S, Thomas MK, Hartman ML, Haupt A, Milicevic Z, Coskun T. Retatrutide, a GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon receptor agonist, for people with type 2 diabetes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo and active-controlled, parallel-group, phase 2 trial conducted in the USA. Lancet. 2023 Aug 12;402(10401):529-544. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)01053-X. Epub 2023 Jun 26. PMID: 37385280.
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