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Fragment 176-191 (10mg)
Fragment 176-191 peptides are Synthesized and Lyophilized in the USA.
Discount per Quantity
|Quantity||5 - 9||10 +|
FREE - 30ml bottle of bacteriostatic water
(Required for reconstitution)
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What is the Fragment 176-191 peptide?
Fragment 176-191 peptide is a short segment of human growth hormone (hGH) and is sometimes referred to as the “lipolytic fragment.” The name was coined from initial research on animal systems which suggested that Fragment 176-191 holds the potential to enhance fat metabolism in genetically engineered obese mice. Human growth hormone (hGH) treatment has several adverse effects on the body, such as suppressing carbohydrate metabolism, altered sensitivity towards insulin, promotion of long bone growth, and heightened insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels. Extensive animal studies have suggested that the synthetic fragment may enhance the lipolytic effects of hGH without inducing the same side effects. Therefore, the peptide may potentially be used for anti-obesity treatments.
AKA: Frag 176-191
Molecular Formula: C78H125N23O23S2
Molecular Weight: 1817.1 g/mol
CAS Number: 66004-57-7
Frag 176-191, Fat Burning and Weight Loss
The fat-burning potential of Frag 176-191 stems from the peptide’s hypothetical ability to increase the production of beta-3 adrenergic receptors (3-AR or ADRB3). Agonist activity of the Fragment 176-191 peptide upon interaction with ADRB3 appeared to directly enhance fat burning in adipose tissue, and may also trigger skeletal muscle thermogenesisscle. Research indicates that genetically modified mice that lack ADRB3 are resistant to the effect of hGH / Fragment 176-191. One experimental study observed that treatment of Fragment 176-191 appeared to cause up to 50% weight reduction in obese mice over three weeks. Interestingly, the peptide appeared to mediate weight reduction only in obese mice but not in lean mice during the same span of treatment. The results suggest that there may be secondary pathways involved in energy homeostasis which are capable of maintaining fat reserve in lean mice by overriding ADRB3 pathway.
Frag 176-191 and blood sugar levels
The C terminal end of hGH principally has been observed to bring about hypoglycemic (low blood sugar) levels in the mice’s bodies. Screening of at least six different fragments obtained from the C terminal section of hGH has suggested that Fragment 176-191 may be the most effective synthetic derivative of hGH for decreasing blood sugar levels. The hypoglycemic function is secondary to maintaining an increased expression of insulin in blood plasma. These functions suggest that Frag 176-191 has the potential to treat prediabetes and type-2 diabetes.
Frag 176-191 and cartilage regeneration
Experimental research in Frag 176-191 suggests its ability to promote cartilage regeneration. Researchers engaged in the study of synthetic peptides suggest that they may bring about cartilage regeneration like hyaluronic acid treatment. Research in rabbits has observed that weekly administration of Fragment 176-191 appeared to improve cartilage growth (within laboratory measures), and its co-administration with hyaluronic acid (HA) appeared to be even more effective. Fragment 176-191 both independently and in combination with HA may help to improve the conditions of osteoarthritis. Thus there is the reason to include Frag 176-191 in the scope of beneficial treatments which may overcome the requirement of surgery.
Safety Studies in Fragment 176-191
Researchers have attempted to address the concern regarding the administration of hGH or its derivatives for weight loss. This concern arises from the fact that hGH has shown that exogenous use over extended periods can have significant physiological side effects such as:
– Edema (swelling)
– Increased resistance to insulin
– Hypertension (high blood pressure)
The Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism published a study in 2013 which evaluated six research works conducted on the rate and relevance of detrimental effects of Fragment 176-191 peptide. The study is based strictly on the work that has abided by the placebo-controlled, randomized, and double-blinded model of a phase IIb clinical trial with the aim to achieve the highest possible standards of evidence. The study observed that administration of Fragment 176-191 appeared to exhibit no significant alterations compared to placebo control in:
– Physical findings
– Glucose levels
– Laboratory parameters
– Glucose tolerance
– IGF-1 levels
– Insulin sensitivity or,
– Rates of adverse events (such as headaches)
The meta-analysis has highlighted that the peptide may have the potential to deliver the same beneficial effects of hGH treatment without triggering the harmful effects of hGH. The studies speak in favor of regulated use of the synthetic peptide in clinical settings apart from providing insight into the moderation of human growth and development, fat metabolism, and energy homeostasis by the peptide. The studies thus open doors for more comprehensive understanding of energy homeostasis and targeted fat metabolism and ways of manipulating it.
It is important to note that hGH influences muscle growth and development while Fragment 176-191 peptide is strictly catabolic in nature. Studies indicate the peptide appears to trigger lipolysis in adipocytes without bringing about acromegaly or other adverse situations associated with hGH use. Mice models have also observed that the peptide does not appear to promote cellular proliferation.
Summarization of Research Areas of Frag 176-191
The principal areas of research on Fragment 176-191 explore its role in fat metabolism and weight loss. The findings have led to further research in the domain of the mechanism of energy homeostasis in the body. The secondary areas of interest include the effect of Fragment 176-191 in the repair of cartilage and connective tissue regeneration.
- Habibullah MM, Mohan S, Syed NK, Makeen HA, Jamal QMS, Alothaid H, Bantun F, Alhazmi A, Hakamy A, Kaabi YA, Samlan G, Lohani M, Thangavel N, Al-Kasim MA. Human Growth Hormone Fragment 176-191 Peptide Enhances the Toxicity of Doxorubicin-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles Against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2022 Jun 27;16:1963-1974. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S367586. PMID: 35783198; PMCID: PMC9249349.
- Heffernan M, Summers RJ, Thorburn A, Ogru E, Gianello R, Jiang WJ, Ng FM. The effects of human GH and its lipolytic fragment (AOD9604) on lipid metabolism following chronic treatment in obese mice and beta(3)-AR knock-out mice. Endocrinology. 2001 Dec;142(12):5182-9. doi: 10.1210/endo.142.12.8522. PMID: 11713213.
- Heffernan MA, Jiang WJ, Thorburn AW, Ng FM. Effects of oral administration of a synthetic fragment of human growth hormone on lipid metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Sep;279(3):E501-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.2000.279.3.E501. PMID: 10950816.
- Ng FM, Bornstein J. Hyperglycemic action of synthetic C-terminal fragments of human growth hormone. Am J Physiol. 1978 May;234(5):E521-6. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.1978.234.5.E521. PMID: 645904.
- Kwon DR, Park GY. Effect of Intra-articular Injection of AOD9604 with or without Hyaluronic Acid in Rabbit Osteoarthritis Model. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2015 Summer;45(4):426-32. PMID: 26275694.
Dr. Usman (BSc, MBBS, MaRCP) completed his studies in medicine at the Royal College of Physicians, London. He is an avid researcher with more than 30 publications in internationally recognized peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Usman has worked as a researcher and a medical consultant for reputable pharmaceutical companies such as Johnson & Johnson and Sanofi.