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DSIP peptides are Synthesized and Lyophilized in the USA.
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What Is DSIP (Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide)?
DSIP is a neuropeptide that may influence diverse endocrine and physiological pathways involved in the central nervous system. DSIP is of key interest as it was developed to help combat oxidative stress and normalize myocardial contractility. The peptide is considered a potential target for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) is a naturally occurring peptide of short length. The molecule’s name came about due to it inducing sleep in rabbits and because it was first isolated from the brains of rats during slow-wave sleep (in 1977). Researchers have gradually explored its function in different endocrine and physiological roles. DSIP appears to influence levels of corticotropin, inhibit the production of somatostatin, reduce stress, maintain normal blood pressure, change sleep patterns, and also may affect the perception of pain. Experimental studies in DSIP have observed its potential in the future for the treatment of depression, cancer, and prevention of damage from free radicals.
AKA: Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide
Molecular Formula: C35H48N10O15
Molecular Weight: 848.81 g/mol
PubChem: CID 68816
CAS Number: 62568-57-4
Relationship of DSIP to Sleep
Extensive research has been conducted to establish the connection between the peptide and sleep. Despite the initial findings in rabbits, it was tough to establish the pattern in which DSIP affects sleep. In some findings, it did not influence sleep at all. In some, the peptide favored slow-wave sleepover paradoxical sleep. Interestingly, there were other groups whose research noted that the molecule appeared to cause arousal in the first hour of sleep followed by sedation in the second hour of sleep. In totality, it was observed that DSIP may help to bring about a normalized sleeping pattern and eliminates any dysfunction in sleep cycles. Possibly the most relevant work regarding the regulation of sleep by DSIP has been conducted in the backdrop of insomnia. The results have suggested that the peptide has the potential to improve sleep patterns in chronic patients. Other studies have further highlighted that it may improve sleep structure and decrease sleep latency in chronic insomnia. However, even though polysomnographic studies have shown that DSIP may induce statistically significant improvement in sleep, sufficient research material is still weak. Research conducted on human subjects observed subjective improvements like the feeling of sleepiness, shortening of sleep onset, and increased of sleep time by 59% (compared to placebo). However, the EEG analyses appeared to contradict the subjective results by revealing no obvious sedation. The contrasting findings could be due to the existing testing methodologies such as EEG, which measures sedation based on pharmacological and not natural parameters.
DSIP Research and Chronic Pain
Improvement of chronic pain through analgesic use can be challenging. NSAIDs and opiates help in short-term relief but cannot be used for extended periods due to their well-known adverse effects. Hence, researchers have suggested the potential for DSIP therapy for chronic pain as it may significantly reduce the perception of pain and elevate mood, as observed in a small-scale pre-clinical trial on humans. The study also observed that DSIP appeared to help patients overcome withdrawal symptoms after long-term analgesics had been discontinued. Studies on rats have indicated that opiates and DSIP both work on the same opiate receptors of the central nervous system. DSIP thus has the potential to cause significant pain relief in a dose-dependent fashion, though it is uncertain if this effect is a direct or indirect effect of the peptide. The benefit of DSIP use is that research has not observed the peptide to induce any kind of dependency, unlike opiate medication.
DSIP Research and Depression, Chemical Imbalances
Scientists have investigated the role of DSIP in altering mitochondrial activity under hypoxic conditions. The peptide was observed to have the potential to prevent changes in monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) and serotonin levels. This finding suggests that the peptide may have an impact on the course of depression. DSIP abundance has been observed to be lower in cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from major depression compared to the same controls. Sleep and depression are closely related; a molecule that regulates sleep will certainly have use in depression management. However, there has been no clinical approach that aims to balance the DSIP level to date. It has, however, been linked to alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and influences suicidal behavior.
DSIP Research and Metabolism
Studies on rat models have highlighted that Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide may help change stress-related metabolic fluctuations, which causes mitochondria to switch from oxygen-dependent to oxygen-independent respiration. The latter is less efficient and brings about toxic metabolic byproduct formation. Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide may promote oxidative phosphorylation even in hypoxic conditions and can thus be beneficial in stroke or heart attack. It appears to assist normal metabolic function and thus reverses the damage caused by oxygen deprivation, protecting tissues until blood flow is restored. Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide research suggests that DSIP may be a potent anti-oxidant preventing free radical formation and may also be used as an anti-aging supplement.
DSIP Research in Withdrawal and Addiction
DSIP research noted improvement in patients showing withdrawal symptoms during alcohol and opiate detoxification. A study conducted on a cohort of 107 patients with withdrawal symptoms resulted in 97% and 87% recovery rates for alcohol and opiate withdrawals, respectively. Opiate withdrawal treatment may require DSIP administration for a longer tenure of treatment, as this addiction is more resistant to treatment.
DSIP and Cancer Prevention
Researchers have explored the possibility of preventing the onset of cancer apart from the conventional research on cancer cure post-onset. Initial research on DSIP has put forth its potential in acting as a viable cancer vaccine, which could boost the immune system and seek out and eliminate the rogue cells before they metastasize in the body. Studies have observed that female mice administered with DSIP for 5 consecutive days of every month starting at the age of 3 months till their death show a 2.6-fold reduction in the development of tumors. There has also been a corresponding 22.6% reduction in the frequency of chromosomal defects in the bone marrow of the DSIP treated mice. Research in this area is still ongoing.
DSIP Being Tested as Cancer Adjuvant
Cancer chemotherapy often changes central nervous system functioning. These side effects include impaired loss of motor control, behavioral alterations like depression, and problems with language and speech. Children undergoing chemotherapy are especially susceptible to these changes. DSIP has the potential to both prevent and correct the CNS changes by increasing blood flow to the CNS and brain. In animal models, DSIP or its alternative Deltaran treatment has appeared to help mice to survive cerebral ischemia completely (100%) compared to only 62% in controls. The increased blood flow appears to promote healing and reduce metabolic damage.
DSIP Research in Physiologic and Muscle-Building Effects
Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide was first discovered in the brains of rabbits during slow-wave sleep and has since been involved with sleep and central nervous system-mediated control of sleep-wake cycles. Interestingly, not much is known about DSIP synthesis. High Levels of Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide present in both tissues of CNS and peripheral tissues suggest that the peptide is produced outside CNS, and its primary function might not be regulation of sleep. Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide is also considered to be a hypothalamic hormone that influences more than just sleep. In one study, Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide has been observed to inhibit somatostatin, a protein produced in muscle cells that inhibits muscle growth. By inhibiting somatostatin, Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide may contribute to hypertrophy and hyperplasia in skeletal muscle. Such direct inhibitory effects seem surprising for a peptide originally thought to be primarily involved in sleep promotion. This has triggered speculation that the peptide might have a larger and more universal role in influencing human physiology.
In animal models, Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide has been observed to help regulate blood pressure, heart rate, thermogenesis, and the lymphokine system. Some of these processes appear before any clinical or laboratory signs of sleep, indicating that Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide may actually play a role in altering physiology to prepare the body for sleep onset. Initial research reports that the peptide exhibits minimal side effects, less oral, and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice. The dosage used in mice (per kg) does not scale to humans.
- Monnier M, Dudler L, Gächter R, Maier PF, Tobler HJ, Schoenenberger GA. The delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP). Comparative properties of the original and synthetic nonapeptide. Experientia. 1977 Apr 15;33(4):548-52. doi: 10.1007/BF01922266. PMID: 862769.
- Koval’zon VM. DSIP: peptid sna ili neizvestnyĭ gormon gipotalamusa [DSIP: the sleep peptide or an unknown hypothalamic hormone?]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 1994 Mar-Apr;30(2):310-9. Russian. PMID: 7817664.
- Nakagaki K, Ebihara S, Usui S, Honda Y, Takahashi Y, Kato N. [Effects of intraventricular injection of anti-DSIP serum on sleep in rats]. Yakubutsu Seishin Kodo. 1986 Jun;6(2):259-65. Japanese. PMID: 3776352.
- Iyer KS, Marks GA, Kastin AJ, McCann SM. Evidence for a role of delta sleep-inducing peptide in slow-wave sleep and sleep-related growth hormone release in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 May;85(10):3653-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.85.10.3653. PMID: 3368469; PMCID: PMC280272.
- Schneider-Helmert D, Gnirss F, Monnier M, Schenker J, Schoenenberger GA. Acute and delayed effects of DSIP (delta sleep-inducing peptide) on human sleep behavior. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1981 Aug;19(8):341-5. PMID: 6895513.
- Larbig W, Gerber WD, Kluck M, Schoenenberger GA. Therapeutic effects of delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) in patients with chronic, pronounced pain episodes. A clinical pilot study. Eur Neurol. 1984;23(5):372-85. doi: 10.1159/000115716. PMID: 6548970.
- Dick P, Grandjean ME, Tissot R. Successful treatment of withdrawal symptoms with delta sleep-inducing peptide, a neuropeptide with potential agonistic activity on opiate receptors. Neuropsychobiology. 1983;10(4):205-8. doi: 10.1159/000118012. PMID: 6328354.
- Lesch KP, Widerlöv E, Ekman R, Laux G, Schulte HM, Pfüller H, Beckmann H. Delta sleep-inducing peptide response to human corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in major depressive disorder. Comparison with CRH-induced corticotropin and cortisol secretion. Biol Psychiatry. 1988 Jun;24(2):162-72. doi: 10.1016/0006-3223(88)90271-5. PMID: 2839244.
- Khvatova EM, Samartzev VN, Zagoskin PP, Prudchenko IA, Mikhaleva II. Delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP): effect on respiration activity in rat brain mitochondria and stress protective potency under experimental hypoxia. Peptides. 2003 Feb;24(2):307-11. doi: 10.1016/s0196-9781(03)00040-8. PMID: 12668217.
Dr. Usman (BSc, MBBS, MaRCP) completed his studies in medicine at the Royal College of Physicians, London. He is an avid researcher with more than 30 publications in internationally recognized peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Usman has worked as a researcher and a medical consultant for reputable pharmaceutical companies such as Johnson & Johnson and Sanofi.