What Is DSIP (Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide)?
DSIP is a neuropeptide that influences diverse endocrine and physiological pathways involved in the central nervous system. DSIP is of key interest as it helps combat oxidative stress and normalizes myocardial contractility. The peptide is considered a potential target for the treatment of major depressive disorder.
Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) is a naturally occurring peptide of short length. The molecule’s name came about due to it inducing sleep in rabbits and because it was first isolated from the brains of rats during slow-wave sleep (in 1977). Researchers have gradually explored its function in different endocrine and physiological roles. DSIP influences levels of corticotropin, inhibits the production of somatostatin, reduces stress, maintains normal blood pressure, changes sleep patterns, and also affects the perception of pain. The peptide has shown merit in its use in the future for the treatment of depression, cancer, and prevention of damage from free radicals.
AKA:Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide
Molecular Formula: C35H48N10O15
Molecular Weight: 848.81 g/mol
PubChem: CID 68816
CAS Number: 62568-57-4
Research on DSIP peptide
The Relationship of DSIP to Sleep
Extensive research has been conducted to establish the connection between the peptide and sleep. Despite the initial findings in rabbits, it was tough to establish the pattern in which DSIP affects sleep. In some findings, it did not influence sleep at all. In some, the peptide favored slow-wave sleepover paradoxical sleep. Interestingly, there were other groups whose research showed that the molecule caused arousal in the first hour of sleep followed by sedation in the second hour of sleep. In totality, it was observed that DSIP helps to bring about a normalized sleeping pattern and eliminates any dysfunction in sleep cycles.
Possibly the most relevant work regarding the regulation of sleep by DSIP has been conducted in the backdrop of insomnia. The results have proven that the peptide improves sleep patterns in chronic patients such that it matches that of the controls. Other studies have further highlighted that it improves sleep structure and decreases sleep latency in chronic insomnia. However, even though polysomnographic studies have shown that DSIP induces statistically significant improvement in sleep, it is still weak.
Thus, despite the contradictory findings, it has been proven that DSIP affects the overall sleep cycle. Research conducted on human subjects has shown subjective improvements like the feeling of sleepiness, shortening of sleep onset, and increased of sleep time by 59% (compared to placebo). However, the EEG analyses contradict the subjective results by revealing no obvious sedation. The contrasting findings could be due to the existing testing methodologies such as EEG, which measures sedation based on pharmacological and not natural parameters. At least the drug has certainly helped deep dive into the mechanism of sleep, which has not been fully comprehended despite of several years of dedicated research. It has also helped build a premise for the scientists to reevaluate the existing parameters for estimating sleep in laboratory settings.
DSIP Research and Chronic Pain
Improvement of chronic pain through analgesic use can be challenging. NSAIDs and opiates help in short-term relief but cannot be used for extended periods due to their well-known adverse effects. Hence, researchers have found DSIP to be useful for chronic pain as it significantly reduces the perception of pain and elevates mood, as observed in a small-scale pre-clinical trial on humans. The study also observed that DSIP helps patients overcome withdrawal symptoms after long-term analgesics have been discontinued.
Studies on rats have shown that opiates and DSIP both work on the same opiate receptors of the central nervous system. DSIP thus causes significant pain relief in a dose-dependent fashion though it is uncertain if this effect is a direct or indirect effect of the drug. The benefit of DSIP use is it does not induce any kind of dependency, unlike the opiate medication.
Depression, Chemical Imbalances, and DSIP
Scientists have investigated the role of DSIP in altering mitochondrial activity under hypoxic conditions. The peptide was observed to prevent changes in monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) and serotonin levels. This finding hence indicated that the peptide could have an impact on the course of depression.
DSIP abundance has been observed to be lower in cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from major depression compared to the same controls. Sleep and depression are closely related; a molecule that regulates sleep will certainly have use in depression management. However, there has been no clinical approach that aims to balance the DSIP level to date. It has, however, been linked to alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and influences suicidal behavior.
Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide Research and Metabolism
Studies on rat models have highlighted that Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide helps change stress-related metabolic fluctuations, which causes mitochondria to switch from oxygen-dependent to oxygen-independent respiration. The latter is less efficient and brings about toxic metabolic byproduct formation. Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide promotes oxidative phosphorylation even in hypoxic conditions and can thus be beneficial in stroke or heart attack. It preserves normal metabolic function and thus reverses the damage caused by oxygen deprivation and protects tissues till the blood flow is restored. Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide thus acts as a potent anti-oxidant preventing free radical formation and thus can be used as an anti-aging supplement.
DSIP Research in Withdrawal and Addiction
DSIP shows improvement in patients showing withdrawal symptoms during alcohol and opiate detoxification. A study conducted on a cohort of 107 patients with withdrawal symptoms has shown 97% and 87% recovery for alcohol and opiate withdrawals, respectively. Opiate withdrawal treatment requires DSIP administration for a longer tenure of treatment as it is more resistant to treatment.
Researchers have explored the possibility of preventing the onset of cancer apart from the conventional research on cancer cure post-onset. DSIP has been observed to act as the best cancer vaccine obtained to date, which boosts the immune system and helps seek out and eliminate the rogue cells before they metastasize in the body. Studies have shown that female mice administered with DSIP for 5 consecutive days of every month starting at the age of 3 months till their death show a 2.6-fold reduction in the development of tumors. There has also been a corresponding 22.6% reduction in the frequency of chromosomal defects in the bone marrow of the DSIP treated mice.
DSIP Being Tested as Cancer Adjuvant
Cancer chemotherapy often changes central nervous system functioning. These side effects include impaired loss of motor control, behavioral alterations like depression, and problems with language and speech. Children undergoing chemotherapy are especially susceptible to these changes. DSIP can both prevent and correct the CNS changes by increasing blood flow to the CNS and brain. In animal models, DSIP or its alternative Deltaran treatment has helped the mice to survive cerebral ischemia completely (100%) compared to only 62% in controls. The increased blood flow promotes healing and reduces metabolic damage.
Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide May Have Widespread Physiologic and Muscle-Building Effects
Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide was first discovered in the brains of rabbits during slow-wave sleep and has since been involved with sleep and central nervous system-mediated control of sleep-wake cycles. Interestingly, not much is known about DSIP synthesis. High Levels of Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide present in both tissues of CNS and peripheral tissues suggest that the peptide is produced outside CNS, and its primary function might not be regulation of sleep.
Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide is also considered to be a hypothalamic hormone that influences more than just sleep. In one study, Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide has been observed to inhibit somatostatin, a protein produced in muscle cells that inhibits muscle growth. By inhibiting somatostatin, Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide contributes to hypertrophy and hyperplasia in skeletal muscle. Such direct inhibitory effects seem surprising for a peptide originally thought to be primarily involved in sleep promotion. This has triggered speculation that the peptide might have a larger and more universal role in influencing human physiology.
In animal models, Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide has been found to regulate blood pressure, heart rate, thermogenesis, and the lymphokine system. Some of these processes appear before any clinical or laboratory signs of sleep, indicating that Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide may actually play a role in altering physiology to prepare the body for sleep onset.
The peptide exhibits minimal side effects, less oral, and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice. The dosage used in mice (per kg) does not scale to humans.