AKA: Mechano-Growth Factor
Molecular Formula: C121H200N42O39
Molecular Weight: 2971.99 g/mol
What is MGF peptide?
Mechano-growth factor (MGF) is an alternative name for the inulin like growth factor-1Eb (IGF-1Eb) isoform of IGF-1. It plays a significant role in remodeling of muscles, cellular survival as well as cellular proliferation. New studies conducted on this specific isoform highlights its role in activation of satellite cells in skeletal muscle, suggest that this particular isoform can also activate satellite cells in skeletal muscle, protect neurons, and helps to overcome the age-related loss of muscle mass.
The principal function of MGF is to promote repair of severe muscle wear and tear especially that caused by injury or exercise. The peptide levels increase significantly after muscle injury. Further, its concentration also corresponds with skeletal muscle growth and differentiation as found in rodent models.
MGD Peptide effects
1. Mechano-Growth Factor and Inflammation
Inflammatory cells such as macrophages and the specific signaling molecules they release bring about muscle regeneration. Macrophages have been observed to produce MGF in the backdrop of muscle inflammation. IGF-1Ea (MGF) not only exhibit anti-inflammatory effects, but also extends the life of macrophages. The specific relevance of this effect is hitherto known, but it is speculated that use of external MGF can improve the rate of muscle cell healing through macrophage modulation.
2. MGF Levels Affected by Age
IGF-1 has multiple variants and the synthesis of these isoforms gets influenced by different factors. The spicing and formation of different splice variants of IGF-1 is affected by developmental factors, hormones like growth and steroid hormones and age. Age, in particular, is a crucial deciding factor for regulation of IGF-1 splicing. The predominant variants in young men are class 1 and class 2 whereas elderly people show prevalence of class 1Ea. The switch in predominant splice variant acts as a relevant starting point and helps to understand the biology of aging better. The overall significance of this change in terms of obvious signs of aging isn’t clear, but it offers an experimental starting point for understanding better the aging process. It has been suggested that MGF can reduce the loss of muscles with progression of age though in-depth study is essential.
3. Mechano-Growth Factor and Cardiac Cells
The peptide was found to protect cardiac muscles from ischemia in sheep models of myocardial infarction (heart attack). In fact, the work found a 35% decrease in cardiomyocyte compromise after MGF was used following cardiac arrest. This finding is of great relevance as till date very limited medical interventions could ameliorate the impact of a heart attack while it was still occurring. Use of MGF is a simple and safe alternative compared to use of stents or clot-dissolving drugs which have far-reaching complications. The molecule has opened up a new approach to treatment of acute myocardial infarction. It reduces the impact of the heart attack by one third when given to first responders. The peptide has the potential for improved benefits since heart attack is the highest cause of adult deaths in developed countries of the world.
4. MGF Research, Muscle Growth and Optimized Physical Training
MGF promotes hypertrophy and repair of muscle by stimulating muscle stem cells (called satellite cells). Research in murine models show a 25% increase in size of mean muscle fiber following intramuscular MGF injection of three weeks. The peptide is speculated to improve muscle conditions in degenerative diseases as well as stimulates the benefits of exercise on muscles. The latter speculation stems from the underlying importance of muscle mass in baseline metabolism. Boosting of muscle mass not only improves the basal metabolism but also aids in fat burning. Thus the ability to increase lean body mass helps to combat serious issues like obesity and allied health hazards.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe degenerative muscular disease, is often treated by transplanting precursors of muscle cells (called myogenic precursor cells). The transplantation helps to improve dystrophin production and ameliorates the disease conditions. Unfortunately, low survival rates post-transplant has never made the procedure therapeutically viable. Mouse studies have shown that MGF helps in survival of the precursor cells thus making the transplantation successful. Therefore the use of the peptide could become the main choice of DMD treatment alongside transplantation and not just a niche alternative.
5. MGF in Brain Development and Neuron Health
Studies on brains of developing mice have shown presence of MGF as early as in 2010. The study sheds light on the neuroprotective role of the peptide. MGF is overexpressed in hypoxic brains of rats in the regions of brain which undergo neuron regeneration. The influence of the peptide on neuron health was evident from murine model of ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease). ALS leads to loss of motor neurons and overall progressive weakness of the body. Treatment with MGF improves both the symptoms mentioned above. MGF has been found to be better than other IGF-1 isoforms in regeneration of regions of adult brains after global ischemia. MGF thus shows potential to be used in treatment of ALS.
6. Mechano-Growth Factor and Cartilage
Cartilage, one of the most crucial connective tissues of our body, can get damaged due to injury, repeated strain on a joint (osteoarthritis), or inflammatory condition (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis). Unfortunately, cartilage does not recover well for a variety of reasons including inadequate blood supply and a lack of stem cells necessary for significant regeneration of the tissue. Studies have shown MGF to be capable of helping in more effective cartilage regeneration.
MGF promotes survival of chondrocytes (primarily involved in cartilage health and recuperation) following mechanical stimuli. To explain in better words, in the backdrop of physical stress and damage to the cartilage tissue, MGF boosts the survival and migration of chondrocytes (via YAP signaling and other pathways) to sites of injury. The chondrocyte movement helps in better cartilage repair and restoration of function.
The peptide has been observed to be both therapeutic and effective in prevention of injury and disability over a long time span. Overloading chondrocytes causes apoptosis leading to disc degeneration in the human spine under continued mechanical stress in the spine. MGF can help to inhibit the apoptosis of these cells thereby inhibiting disc degeneration of the spine. Use of the molecule as a supplement against spinal disc degeneration is an area of active study.
Mechano-Growth Factor Research Direction
MGF has been observed to promote protection of neurons and muscles as well as cartilage regeneration and hence holds a lot of therapeutic importance. Therefore, it is a potential candidate for pharmaceutical development and the peptide can be used in several path-breaking treatments over the next decade. In addition, new roles of MGF are being unraveled regularly.
MGF exhibits minimal side effects, low oral bioavailability and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice. The dosage necessary for mice (per kg) does not scale to humans. MGF is sold by Biotech Peptides strictly for educational and scientific research, not for human consumption. Only buy MGF peptide if you are a licensed researcher.