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Follistatin-344 peptides are Synthesized and Lyophilized in the USA.
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What is the Follistatin-344 peptide?
Follistatin-344 is a synthetic, full-sized version, of a naturally occurring protein in the body. You can find it in the tissues of many animals. Follistatin-344 occurs in two isomers, varying based on their gene splicing. Researchers suggest that its primary role in the body is to counteract the effects of the Tumor Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta) family. The TGF-beta family comprises of Myostatin, Activin, and Follicle Stimulating Growth Hormone (FSH). Follistatin-344 appears to act by stimulating Insulin/IGF-1 pathway, and there is an immense deal of potential exhibited in Follistatin-344 research. It is frequently studied owing to its potential in several human conditions ranging from muscle dysfunction to cancer and diabetes.
SYNONYMS: Activin-binding protein, FST, FSH- Suppressing protein
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 3780 g/mol
SEQUENCE: MVRARHQPGG LCLLLLLLCQ FMEDRSAQAG NCWLRQAKNG RCQVLYKTEL SKEECCSTGR LSTSWTEEDV NDNTLFKWMI FNGGAPNCIP CKETCENVDC GPGKKCRMNK KNKPRCVCAP DCSNITWKGP VCGLDGKTYR NECALLKARC KEQPELEVQY QGRCKKTCRD VFCPGSSTCV VDQTNNAYCV TCNRICPEPA SSEQYLCGND GVTYSSACHL RKATCLLGRS IGLAYEGKCI KAKSCEDIQC TGGKKCLWDF KVGRGRCSLC DELCPDSKSD EPVCASDNAT YASECAMKEA ACSSGVLLEV KHSGSCNSIS EDTEEEEEDE DQDYSFPISS ILEW
Follistatin-344 and Muscle Growth
Myostatin is a naturally occurring protein in the body that belongs to the TGF-1 family. It inhibits muscle growth in the body. Numerous studies have supported the hypothesis that Follistatin-344 may inhibit the effects of Myostatin. A comparative study indicated that animals with this protein tend to have greater muscle mass, than naturally lacking it. Follistatin-344 appears to increase muscle mass by hyperplasia (increase in the number of muscle fibers) and hypertrophy (increase in muscle fiber). Interestingly, in this study, the administration of Follistatin-344 appeared to increase the muscle mass in the mice in the absence of other muscle-building factors. The muscle-building factors refer to exercise and a special diet. The results implied that the administration of Follistatin-344 may provide multiplied benefits when supplemented with a special diet and appropriate training. The potential of Follistatin-344 to promote muscle growth and enhance muscle strength is of great significance in diseases involving muscular dystrophy. Studies have suggests the ability of Follistatin-344 to reduce inflammation and fibrosis. Its primary property appears to be enhancing muscle growth, which can treat inflammatory muscular dystrophies such as Duchene Muscular Dystrophy. Researchers can perform Follistatin-344 administration via an intradermal route. However, studies have indicated that past gene administration of Follistatin-344 may provide a sustained duration of effects for as long as two years. These effects on muscle growth appear to be independent of the age of the subject.
Follistatin-344 and Breast Cancer
A clinical study in breast cancer patients used immune-histochemistry and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The study reported under-expression of Follistatin-344 in the majority of participants, while over-expression was only found in a small number of patients. The over-expression of Follistatin was associated with a better prognosis, as per the studies for ABC monomer. It appeared to prevent metastasis of the tumor, but did increase its growth. Contrastingly, under-expression of Follistatin-344 appeared to lead to higher incidences of metastasis. A study done on a mouse model of HER-2 positive breast cancer suggested that Follistatin-344 may prevent activin-induced migration of epithelial cells in breast tissue. This potential of Follistatin may prevent metastasis without increasing the growth of the tumor mass. A study done on cases involving benign proliferative diseases of the breast indicated over-expression of Follistatin. This result supports the anti-metastatic potential of Follistatin.
Follistatin-344 and Esophageal Carcinoma
Barret’s esophagus is a pre-malignant condition of Esophageal Carcinoma. It involves the conversion of Squamous epithelium into columnar with goblet cells. Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) is responsible for this metaplasia. Frequent acid reflux in the esophagus leads to over-activation of BMP and ultimately may lead to cancer. Studies suggest the potential for Follistatin-344 in countering the effects of BMP. With this potential, the administration of Follistatin may prevent the development of esophageal cancer. There appears to be varying responses towards Follistatin-344 expression in different types of tumors. In Esophageal tumors, it appears to improve survival, whereas it may shorten survival in lung and ovarian tumors. Research involving rats indicated the possibility of Follistatin-344 to reduce the extent of fibrosis in the liver up to 32%. This potential capability would improve the lifespan of hepatocytes and prevent the progression of fibrosis into liver cancer.
Follistatin-344 and Diabetes Mellitus
An experiment on mice indicated that the over-expression of Follistatin-344 appeared to increase the mass of beta-cells in the pancreas. It also appeared to lead to enhanced production of insulin and better control of blood sugar. Treatment with Follistatin-344 was observed to double the lifespan of these mice, virtually eliminating all the complications of diabetes. Following the research hypothesis of these studies, Follistatin-344 may provide a physiological control of blood sugar and has an effect similar to insulin.
Follistatin-344 Potential Actions
In addition to the roles mentioned above, this peptide is also being researched for its potential ability to exhibit the following effects:
– Follistatin-344 use during pregnancy may ensure optic nerve fusion in the developing fetus.
– Follistatin-344 may increase hair density and enhance hair thickness.
- Haidet AM, Rizo L, Handy C, Umapathi P, Eagle A, Shilling C, Boue D, Martin PT, Sahenk Z, Mendell JR, Kaspar BK. Long-term enhancement of skeletal muscle mass and strength by single gene administration of myostatin inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 18;105(11):4318-22. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0709144105. Epub 2008 Mar 11. PMID: 18334646; PMCID: PMC2393740.
- Chang F, Fang R, Wang M, Zhao X, Chang W, Zhang Z, Li N, Meng Q. The transgenic expression of human follistatin-344 increases skeletal muscle mass in pigs. Transgenic Res. 2017 Feb;26(1):25-36. doi: 10.1007/s11248-016-9985-x. Epub 2016 Oct 27. PMID: 27787698.
- Zabkiewicz C, Resaul J, Hargest R, Jiang WG, Ye L. Increased Expression of Follistatin in Breast Cancer Reduces Invasiveness and Clinically Correlates with Better Survival. Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2017 Jul-Aug;14(4):241-251. doi: 10.21873/cgp.20035. PMID: 28647698; PMCID: PMC5572302.
- Shi L, Resaul J, Owen S, Ye L, Jiang WG. Clinical and Therapeutic Implications of Follistatin in Solid Tumours. Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2016 11-12;13(6):425-435. doi: 10.21873/cgp.20005. PMID: 27807065; PMCID: PMC5219916.
- Ozawa T, Morikawa M, Morishita Y, Ogikubo K, Itoh F, Koinuma D, Nygren PÅ, Miyazono K. Systemic administration of monovalent follistatin-like 3-Fc-fusion protein increases muscle mass in mice. iScience. 2021 May 14;24(5):102488. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2021.102488. PMID: 34113826; PMCID: PMC8170004.
Dr. Usman (BSc, MBBS, MaRCP) completed his studies in medicine at the Royal College of Physicians, London. He is an avid researcher with more than 30 publications in internationally recognized peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Usman has worked as a researcher and a medical consultant for reputable pharmaceutical companies such as Johnson & Johnson and Sanofi.