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GHRP-2 peptides are Synthesized and Lyophilized in the USA.
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FREE - 30ml bottle of bacteriostatic water
(Required for reconstitution)
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What is the GHRP-2 peptide?
GHRP-2 (also known as pralmorelin) is a synthetic growth hormone secretagogue which interacts with the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor. It is a test peptide used to evaluate growth hormone deficiency as well as secondary adrenal failure. GHRP-2 has also been evaluated in stage II clinical trials for the assessment of short stature. Extensive research has also been performed to evaluate its role in the regulation of muscle development, appetite, the immune system, and sleep cycles. GHRP-2 remains orally and sublingually active and hence does not require an intravenous introduction for its physiological efficacy.
AKA: Thymosin Beta 4
Molecular Formula: C45H55N9O6
Molecular Weight: 817.9 g/mol
PubChem: CID 6918245
CAS Number: 158861-67-7
GHRP-2 and Appetite
GHRP-2 has been studied in relation to appetite stimulation and food intake. The scientists commented that “GHRP-2, like ghrelin, increases food intake, suggesting that GHRP-2 is a valuable tool for investigating ghrelin effects on eating behavior in humans.” This holds relevance in the backdrop of chronic diseases where appetite stimulation is an important part of overall health care. The potential of the peptide to easily and reliably stimulate the appetite could be beneficial for chronically ill patients and help to improve long-term outcomes.
GHRP-2 and Muscle Structure
Research in yaks noted that GHRP-2 peptide appeared to stimulate the growth of muscles in two ways: enhanced protein synthesis and accumulation, and reduced protein degradation. The study suggested that GHRP-2 may help to overcome natural growth limitation that occurs in yaks because of food deprivation, adverse environmental conditions (such as cold), and disease. The researchers also posited that “GHRP-2 enhanced muscle protein deposition mainly by up-regulating the protein synthesis pathways.” The most significant observation has been the potential benefits of GHRP-2 in reducing muscle atrophy through repression of atrogin-1 and MuRF1- proteins, which regulate muscle degradation pathways. GHRP-2 may one day be employed for conditions associated with decreased catabolism, commonly observed in chronic illnesses such as autoimmune diseases and cancer.
GHRP-2 and the Heart
Studies in fetal heart cell culture lines have theorized that GHRP-2 and its analogs (GHRP-1 and GHRP-6) may help to protect cardiac cells by minimizing apoptosis or programmed cell death. The peptides thus appear to help to protect cardiac muscles from reduced supply of blood and nutrients, which ensues a cardiac arrest. Studies on Hexarelin, a GHRP-2 analog, have posited that these peptides associate with a specific receptor. Identification of new tissue-specific receptors may lead to the discovery of novel pathways for newer medicines, as well as improve our knowledge of the human physiology and mechanisms to avoid dysfunction.
GHRP-2 and the Immune System
GHRP-2 peptide researchers suggest the peptide may enhance the functions of the thymus, an organ that helps protect and mature certain cells of the immune system, especially the T lymphocytes. T lymphocytes are crucial for adaptive immunity and our physiological capacity to combat complex infections. However, the efficacy of the thymus diminishes with age, which causes many age-related problems ranging from insufficient tissue repair to poor immunity. This often leads to an inability to ward off infections, guard against cancer, and perform normal tissue functions. In such cases, GHRP-2 appears to have the capacity to rejuvenate the thymus, possibly promoting the number and diversity of T-cells, thus boosting the body’s general immunity.
GHRP-2 and Pain Perception
Researchers initially thought that GHRP-2 decreases pain associated with osteoarthritis in animal models through the stimulation of growth hormone production and the repair of damaged tissues. However, it has been observed that GHRP-2 may cause pain relief before tissue repair, which happens due to its action on opioid receptors. There are four known opioid receptors. Most opioid pain medications mediate a universal action on all four receptors. The medicines’ generic mode of action can create challenges as the receptors have differential and diverse functions. Some of the receptors influence pain; some affect sensations such as wakefulness and breathing, while still others impact addiction. GHRP-2, on the other hand, appears to be a selective opioid receptor agonist, binding uniquely to the receptors responsible for pain relief, addiction and sedation. This observation suggests that selective opioid agonists may help avoid unwanted effects like respiratory distress and addiction.
GHRP-2 and Sleep Quality
GHRP-2 has been observed to influence sleep cycles. The peptide may increase the duration of stages 3 and 4 of the sleep cycles by about 50% as well as potentially improve the duration of REM sleep by approximately 20%. It may further diminish deviation in sleeping patterns from “normal sleep”. Overall, improvement in sleep leads to betterment in cognitive function, blood pressure, healing, and energy levels. These findings are relevant for adults but specifically for the elderly population where sleep quality gets affected due to age. GHRP-2 may be useful in the advancement of research in sleep quality and may help subjects attain all the benefits of a complete night’s sleep in a shorter duration. Studies reported the peptide to have minimal to moderate side effects, low oral bioavailability, and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in murine models. Per kg dosage in mice does not scale up to the requirement for human use.
- Phung LT, Inoue H, Nou V, Lee HG, Vega RA, Matsunaga N, Hidaka S, Kuwayama H, Hidari H. The effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) on the release of growth hormone and growth performance in swine. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2000 Apr;18(3):279-91. doi: 10.1016/s0739-7240(00)00050-3. PMID: 10793268.
- Laferrère B, Abraham C, Russell CD, Bowers CY. Growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2), like ghrelin, increases food intake in healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Feb;90(2):611-4. doi: 10.1210/jc.2004-1719. PMID: 15699539; PMCID: PMC2824650.
- Hu R, Wang Z, Peng Q, Zou H, Wang H, Yu X, Jing X, Wang Y, Cao B, Bao S, Zhang W, Zhao S, Ji H, Kong X, Niu Q. Effects of GHRP-2 and Cysteamine Administration on Growth Performance, Somatotropic Axis Hormone and Muscle Protein Deposition in Yaks (Bos grunniens) with Growth Retardation. PLoS One. 2016 Feb 19;11(2):e0149461. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149461. PMID: 26894743; PMCID: PMC4760683.
- Titterington JS, Sukhanov S, Higashi Y, Vaughn C, Bowers C, Delafontaine P. Growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 suppresses vascular oxidative stress in ApoE-/- mice but does not reduce atherosclerosis. Endocrinology. 2009 Dec;150(12):5478-87. doi: 10.1210/en.2009-0283. Epub 2009 Oct 9. PMID: 19819949; PMCID: PMC2795722.]
- Chao YN, Sun D, Peng YC, Wu YL. Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 Attenuation of Protein Kinase C-Induced Inflammation in Human Ovarian Granulosa Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Aug 19;17(8):1359. doi: 10.3390/ijms17081359. PMID: 27548147; PMCID: PMC5000754.
- Zeng P, Li S, Zheng YH, Liu FY, Wang JL, Zhang DL, Wei J. Ghrelin receptor agonist, GHRP-2, produces antinociceptive effects at the supraspinal level via the opioid receptor in mice. Peptides. 2014 May;55:103-9. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2014.02.013. Epub 2014 Mar 4. PMID: 24607724.
- Sigalos JT, Pastuszak AW. The Safety and Efficacy of Growth Hormone Secretagogues. Sex Med Rev. 2018 Jan;6(1):45-53. doi: 10.1016/j.sxmr.2017.02.004. Epub 2017 Apr 8. PMID: 28400207; PMCID: PMC5632578.
Dr. Usman (BSc, MBBS, MaRCP) completed his studies in medicine at the Royal College of Physicians, London. He is an avid researcher with more than 30 publications in internationally recognized peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Usman has worked as a researcher and a medical consultant for reputable pharmaceutical companies such as Johnson & Johnson and Sanofi.