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Kisspeptin peptides are Synthesized and Lyophilized in the USA.
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What is the Kisspeptin-10 peptide?
Kisspeptin-10 research suggests the peptide is an important mediator of endocrine signaling when a person hits puberty as well as during reproduction. It may affect the mood and behavior of a person and encourage the development and regulation of blood vessels and renal function, discouraging cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Also known as Metastin, this peptide appears to affect the gonadotropin-releasing hormone or GnRH.
AKA: KISS-1, Protein KISS-1, Metastin, Kp-10 peptide
Molecular Formula: C63H83N17O14
Molecular Weight: 1302.4 g/mol
Kisspeptin-10 and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormones
The Hypothalamus in the brain is responsible for the production and secretion of GnRH. It is secreted at the top of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It controls the downstream production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormones (LH). Primarily, these hormones are associated with the onset of puberty and the maturation of ova and sperm in the female and male reproductive organs, respectively. Administration of Kisspeptin has been studied for its potential to regulate menstruation and early-onset puberty and support certain cancer treatments.
Kisspeptin-10 and Testosterone
Due to Kisspeptin’s potential to affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the peptide may also affect levels of LH and FSH in the bloodstream. Studies observe this release brings about an almost 3x increase in testosterone concentration in males within hours of administration. In addition, it the peptide has been suggested to hold potential in regulating the normal pulsatile release of sex hormones. These effects seem to be directly proportional to the amount of Kisspeptin administered. Kisspeptin is suggested to obscure individual pulses at extremely high doses, causing a continuous release of LH from the anterior pituitary glands. Thus, Kisspeptin-10 may have a therapeutic potential for women during specific conditions arising during pregnancy and for individuals suffering from low testosterone levels.
Kisspeptin-10 and Energy Balance
A person’s nutritional or energetic status appears to affect the neurons secreting Kisspeptin-10, resulting in suppression of GnRH release. Extreme variations in this balance can cause infertility in both sexes. Researchers conclude that “the novel role of kisspeptin neurons as active players within the neuronal circuits that govern energy balance is discussed, offering evidence of a bidirectional role of these neurons as a nexus between metabolism and reproduction.” Additionally, Kisspeptin may be responsible for the regulation of energy in an individual. Research has suggested that depleting the Kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1r)may augment lipid retention, simultaneously reducing energy consumption. Hence, Kisspeptin has the potential to help control the neurochemical status of an individual’s energy consumption and reproduction.
Kisspeptin-10 and Cancer Research
Kisspeptin appears to control the malignancy of melanomas very efficiently. This is possibly due to its proposed ability to affect the migration of the cancerous cells by reducing the adhesive capacity of these cells. Cancers affecting organs such as the breast, urinary bladder, gastrointestinal tract, prostate, pancreas, ovaries, skin, and thyroid appear to demonstrate reduced expression of Kisspeptin, which helps in metastasis. Kisspeptin has multiple potential effects other than those on tumor cells which limits its therapeutic usefulness. The peptide may potentially inhibit metastasis to other sites, thereby reducing disease burden and reducing mortality rates. Together, these effects may enable prescribed treatment plans to be executed fruitfully. Research has linked the levels of Kisspeptin and Melatonin to sunlight. Also, some role has been established in suppressing cancerous growths, but not metastasis. Upon exposure to daylight, experimental models observed excess Kisspeptin and Melatonin production, and vice versa. When tumorigenic cells were introduced in these mice, heightened tumor growth and volume were seen upon daylight exposure.
Kisspeptin-10 and Memory Enhancement
In an individual, the memory consolidation and orientation in 3-D space also appear to be affected by Kisspeptin concentrations. Kisspeptin-10 analogs may have the potential to avert the negative effects of alcohol, such as learning disabilities and navigational impairment, due to their possible ability to regulate the neuronal function that is often affected in genetic or chronic learning disorders. Ongoing research suggests the potential of novel nootropics to help manage both health and affected brains for better functioning.
Kisspeptin-10 and Mood
Reproduction, energy levels, and emotion affect one another. Researchers posit that reproduction and energy homeostasis is affected by Kisspeptin levels. Recent studies have also observed enhanced limbic brain activity such as increased reward-seeking behavior, enthusiasm, and general attitude with Kisspeptin administration. Sexual and emotional processing gets linked to reproduction due to the apparent effect of Kisspeptin on mood, motivation, and sex drive in general.
Kisspeptin-10 and Kidney, Heart
Other than its role in controlling tumor metastasis, Kisspeptin appears to regulate kidney and heart function as well. Kisspeptin-10 and its receptors appear to be expressed in renal tissues, and studies have suggested that Kiss1 receptor knockouts fail to regulate glomerular development. The scientists report that “Kisspeptins and kisspeptin receptor are altered in the kidney tissues of chronic renal impairment, raising the possibility of their pathophysiological roles in chronic renal failure.” Furthermore, Kisspeptin has been observed to control vasoconstriction and sometimes cardiac output in specific research settings. Such regulation may be related to Kisspeptin’s potential to control vascular development and response to injury, the exact mechanism of which remains to be elucidated.
Kisspeptin’s potential in controlling tumor growth and metastasis has been well researched, possibly due to the peptide’s apparent involvement in vascular growth and functioning. In addition, Kisspeptin also appears to regulate hormone secretion related to human reproduction, testosterone levels, and sex-related behaviors like drive and motivation. One of its analogs, Kisspeptin-10, appears to be the safest per experimental research findings, with minimal reported side effects and acceptable oral and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice. The per kg dosage applicable in mice models is not scalable in humans.
- Jayasena CN, Nijher GM, Comninos AN, Abbara A, Januszewki A, Vaal ML, Sriskandarajah L, Murphy KG, Farzad Z, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR, Dhillo WS. The effects of kisspeptin-10 on reproductive hormone release show sexual dimorphism in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Dec;96(12):E1963-72. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-1408. Epub 2011 Oct 5. PMID: 21976724; PMCID: PMC3232613.
- George JT, Veldhuis JD, Roseweir AK, Newton CL, Faccenda E, Millar RP, Anderson RA. Kisspeptin-10 is a potent stimulator of LH and increases pulse frequency in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Aug;96(8):E1228-36. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-0089. Epub 2011 Jun 1. PMID: 21632807; PMCID: PMC3380939.
- Navarro VM. Metabolic regulation of kisspeptin – the link between energy balance and reproduction. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2020 Aug;16(8):407-420. doi: 10.1038/s41574-020-0363-7. Epub 2020 May 19. PMID: 32427949; PMCID: PMC8852368.
- Pazarci P, Kaplan H, Alptekin D, Yilmaz M, Lüleyap U, Singirik E, Pelit A, Kasap H, Yegani A. The effects of daylight exposure on melatonin levels, Kiss1 expression, and melanoma formation in mice. Croat Med J. 2020 Feb 29;61(1):55-61. doi: 10.3325/cmj.2020.61.55. PMID: 32118379; PMCID: PMC7063558.
- Comninos AN, Wall MB, Demetriou L, Shah AJ, Clarke SA, Narayanaswamy S, Nesbitt A, Izzi-Engbeaya C, Prague JK, Abbara A, Ratnasabapathy R, Salem V, Nijher GM, Jayasena CN, Tanner M, Bassett P, Mehta A, Rabiner EA, Hönigsperger C, Silva MR, Brandtzaeg OK, Lundanes E, Wilson SR, Brown RC, Thomas SA, Bloom SR, Dhillo WS. Kisspeptin modulates sexual and emotional brain processing in humans. J Clin Invest. 2017 Feb 1;127(2):709-719. doi: 10.1172/JCI89519. Epub 2017 Jan 23. PMID: 28112678; PMCID: PMC5272173.
- Shoji I, Hirose T, Mori N, Hiraishi K, Kato I, Shibasaki A, Yamamoto H, Ohba K, Kaneko K, Morimoto R, Satoh F, Kohzuki M, Totsune K, Takahashi K. Expression of kisspeptins and kisspeptin receptor in the kidney of chronic renal failure rats. Peptides. 2010 Oct;31(10):1920-5. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2010.07.001. Epub 2010 Jul 17. PMID: 20621140.
- Sato K, Shirai R, Hontani M, Shinooka R, Hasegawa A, Kichise T, Yamashita T, Yoshizawa H, Watanabe R, Matsuyama TA, Ishibashi-Ueda H, Koba S, Kobayashi Y, Hirano T, Watanabe T. Potent Vasoconstrictor Kisspeptin-10 Induces Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression and Instability: Reversal by its Receptor GPR54 Antagonist. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Apr 14;6(4):e005790. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.005790. PMID: 28411243; PMCID: PMC5533042.
Dr. Usman (BSc, MBBS, MaRCP) completed his studies in medicine at the Royal College of Physicians, London. He is an avid researcher with more than 30 publications in internationally recognized peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Usman has worked as a researcher and a medical consultant for reputable pharmaceutical companies such as Johnson & Johnson and Sanofi.
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