What is Kisspeptin-10 peptide?
Kisspeptin-10 is an important mediator of endocrine signaling when a person hits puberty as well as during reproduction. It can affect the mood and behavior of a person and encourage the development and regulation of blood vessels and renal function, discouraging cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Also known as metastin, this peptide can affect the gonadotropin-releasing hormone or GnRH.
AKA: KISS-1, Protein KISS-1, metastin, Kp-10 peptide
Molecular Formula: C63H83N17O14
Molecular Weight: 1302.4 g/mol
Boosting Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
Hypothalamus in the brain is responsible for the production and secretion of GnRH. It is secreted at the top of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It controls the downstream production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormones (LH). Primarily, these hormones are associated with the onset of puberty and the maturation of ova and sperm in the female and male reproductive organs, respectively. Administration of Kisspeptin is used to regulate menstruation and early-onset puberty and support certain cancer treatments.
Due to kisspeptins’ ability to affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the peptide can affect levels of LH and FSH in the bloodstream. This release brings about an almost 3x increase in testosterone concentration in males within hours of administration. In addition, it has demonstrated roles in regulating the normal pulsatile release of sex hormones. These effects seem to be directly proportional to the amount of Kisspeptin administered. Kisspeptin is known to obscure individual pulses at extremely high doses, causing a continuous release of LH from the anterior pituitary glands. Thus, Kisspeptin-10 has therapeutic potential for women during specific conditions arising during pregnancy and for individuals suffering from low testosterone levels.
A person’s nutritional or energetic status affects the neurons secreting Kisspeptin-10, resulting in suppression of GnRH release. Extreme variations in this balance can cause infertility in both sexes.
Also, Kisspeptin may be responsible for the regulation of energy in an individual. Research has shown that deleting kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1r), present in fatty tissues, augmented lipid retention, simultaneously reducing energy consumption. Hence, Kisspeptin controls the neurochemical status of an individual indirectly energy consumption and reproduction.
Kisspeptin can control the malignancy of melanomas very efficiently. This is possible due to its ability to affect the migration of the cancerous cells and possibly by it reducing the adhesive capacity of these cells. Cancers affecting organs such as the breast, urinary bladder, gastrointestinal tract, prostate, pancreas, ovaries, skin, and thyroid demonstrate reduced expression of Kisspeptin, which helps in metastasis.
Kisspeptin has multiple effects other than those on tumor cells which limits its therapeutic usefulness. The peptide can potentially inhibit metastasis to other sites, thereby reducing disease burden and reducing mortality rates. Together, these effects enable the prescribed treatment plans to be executed fruitfully.
Research has linked the levels of Kisspeptin and melatonin to sunlight. Also, some role has been established in suppressing cancerous growths but not metastasis. Upon exposure to daylight, experimental models demonstrated excess kisspeptin production and reduced melatonin production, and vice versa. When tumorigenic cells were introduced in these mice, heightened tumor growth and volume were seen upon daylight exposure.
Studied Memory Enhancement
In an individual, the memory consolidation and orientation in 3-D space are also affected by kisspeptin concentrations. Kisspeptin-10 analogs could avert the negative effects of alcohol, such as learning disabilities and navigational impairment due to their ability to regulate the neuronal function that is often affected in genetic or chronic learning disorders. Ongoing research highlights the potential of novel nootropics to help manage both health and affected brains for better functioning.
Impact on Mood
Reproduction, energy levels, and emotion affect one another. It has been previously established that reproduction and energy homeostasis is affected by kisspeptin levels. Recent studies have demonstrated enhanced limbic brain activity such as increased reward-seeking behavior, enthusiasm, and general attitude with kisspeptin administration. Sexual and emotional processing gets linked to reproduction due to the effect of Kisspeptin on mood, motivation, and drive in general.
Kidney and Heart
Other than its role in controlling tumor metastasis, Kisspeptin regulates kidney and heart function as well. Kisspeptin-10 and its receptors are expressed in renal tissues, and studies have shown that Kiss1 receptor knockouts fail to regulate glomerular development. Furthermore, Kisspeptin has been shown to control vasoconstriction and sometimes cardiac output in specific settings. Such regulation may be related to kisspeptins’ ability to control vascular development and response to injury, the exact mechanism of which remains to be elucidated.
Kisspeptins’ role in controlling tumor growth and metastasis has been well established, possibly due to their vascular growth and functioning involvement. In addition, Kisspeptin also regulates hormone secretion related to human reproduction and impacts testosterone levels and sex-related behaviors like drive and motivation.
One of its analogs, Kisspeptin-10, is the safest, with minimal side effects and acceptable oral and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice. The per kg dosage applicable in mice models is not scalable in humans.