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Livagen peptides are Synthesized and Lyophilized in the USA.
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Livagen is a short peptide bioregulator, similar in structure to Epitalon. Its impacts appear to be exhibited directly on the lymphocytes of the immune system, liver, and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Its direct functions may be widespread, as suggested through research studies on DNA and gene expression patterns. The potential of the Livagen peptide to activate genes enclosed in the GIT and immune system may reflect possible age-mitigating characteristics exerted on cells.
Sequence Formula: Lys-Glu-Asp-Ala
Molecular Formula: C18H31N5O9
Molecular Weight: 461.5g/mol
Livagen Peptide and Chromatin, Immunity
In eukaryotes, the nucleus houses the DNA, and chromatin is a group of DNA and proteins that condense to form chromosomes. To put it simply, researchers explain that “Chromatin is the ensemble of genomic DNA and a large number of proteins.” This DNA organization pattern is considered to encapsulate genetic materials for cell division and replication, as well as genetic materials so they can fit into cells and control the expression of genes at macro levels. Research studies have suggested that Livagen may activate several genes in the lymphocytes by potentially unpacking chromatin. Subsequently, silent genes may become activated, and this impact may indirectly activate the ribosomal genes in the control of protein production and increased cell activity. According to this research, Livagen appears to have four potential and distinct effects on lymphocytes, through possible gene expression alteration, decondensation activity, ribosomal gene activation, and possible chromatin unpacking. Scientists believe that long-term exposure to Livagen in older animal research models may possibly alter the lymphocytes to be expressed similarly to those in younger counterparts. Lymphocytes are considered to be vital cells in the immune system, containing both T- and B-cells. Scientists considered B-cells to act as primary producers of antibodies against foreign and invasive cell structures. T-cells appear to produce cytokines and destroy cancerous cells or infected cells. The proposed ability of Livagen to renew these immunologically important cells may result in increasing the lifespan of functional cells across the organism by deflecting or mitigating instances of disease or attack.
Livagen Peptide and Cell Aging
The impacts of cell aging appear to result from changes in DNA organization, including the type of genes expressed and accessed. Research by Professor Teimuraz Lezhava reports that the degree of chromosomal aberrations may increase with age. The condensation of chromatin and the decreased repair processes are examples of a chromosomal oddity. According to his research, Livagen and a handful of other “bioregulating” peptides, may potentially improve the decondensation of DNA leading to an extended lifespan of general cells.
Livagen Peptide and the Heart
Lymphocytes are considered to be necessary ancillaries in the heart, hinting that the heart may be Livagen-sensitive. Research in research models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) suggests that the dysregulation of the chromatin structure in lymphocytes may be pathogenic in HCM and atherosclerosis, and may improve long-term outcomes. The researchers comment that “that Livagen (characterized by modifying influence on chromatin) separately and in combination with cobalt ions, promotes normalization of altered genomic indicators of atherosclerosis.” Experimental studies further suggest that releasing genes by decondensed chromatin in lymphocytes might reduce the long-term consequences of heart diseases. Researchers posit that Livagen peptide may hold potential to precipitate such a reduction, though research is ongoing. Alteration of lymphocyte gene expression indicates a decrease in inflammation and scars in research models of HCM. Livagen may potentially prevent the development of HCM in genetically predisposed research models.
Livagen and the Gastrointestinal System (GIT)
Early research posits that activated delta cells may protect the mucosal wall of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Following this trend, the Livagen peptide appears to enhance vagus nerve signaling to the GIT and may potentially change the degree of prostaglandins and nitric oxide in the mucosa. In addition to this, gastroprotection may also be generated, creating a potential pathway for Livagen use in mitigating infectious diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, and overall reduction in symptoms of GIT disruption.
Livagen and Pain Signaling
Enkephalin is a natural endogenous peptide that has a reported dynamic pain perception impact. It appears to bind to delta and mu-opioid receptors. Activated Mu receptors may bind to compounds such as morphine to reduce pain perception, and blood pressure. Activated Delta receptors may induce a reduction in pain signaling to the brain, and may explain respiratory depressions sometimes associated with opiate exposure. Research studies suggest that Livagen may function to inhibit the actions of enkephalin inhibiting enzymes in the blood, resulting in enhanced levels of natural pain killers. Research in this area is ongoing.
Disclaimer: The products mentioned are not intended for human or animal consumption. Research chemicals are intended solely for laboratory experimentation and/or in-vitro testing. Bodily introduction of any sort is strictly prohibited by law. All purchases are limited to licensed researchers and/or qualified professionals. All information shared in this article is for educational purposes only.
- van Steensel B. (2011). Chromatin: constructing the big picture. The EMBO journal, 30(10), 1885–1895. https://doi.org/10.1038/emboj.2011.135
- Khavinson, V. K.h, Lezhava, T. A., Monaselidze, J. G., Dzhokhadze, T. A., Dvalishvili, N. A., Bablishvili, N. K., & Ryadnova, I. Y. (2002). Effects of Livagen peptide on chromatin activation in lymphocytes from old people. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine, 134(4), 389–392. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021924702103
- Lezhava, T., Monaselidze, J., Kadotani, T., Dvalishvili, N., & Buadze, T. (2006). Anti-aging peptide bioregulators induce reactivation of chromatin. Georgian medical news, (133), 111–115.
- Lezhava T. A. (2001). Funktsional’nye osobennosti khromosom cheloveka i starenie [Human chromosome functional characteristics and aging]. Advances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii, 8, 34–43.
- Khavinson, V. K.h, Lezhava, T. A., Monaselidze, J. R., Jokhadze, T. A., Dvalishvili, N. A., Bablishvili, N. K., & Trofimova, S. V. (2003). Peptide Epitalon activates chromatin at the old age. Neuro endocrinology letters, 24(5), 329–333.
- Dzhokhadze, T. A., Buadze, T. Z.h, Gaiozishvili, M. N., Kakauridze, N. G., & Lezhava, T. A. (2014). Georgian medical news, (236), 82–86.
- Lezhava, T., & Jokhadze, T. (2007). Activation of pericentromeric and telomeric heterochromatin in cultured lymphocytes from old individuals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1100, 387–399. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1395.043
- Gyires, K., & Rónai, A. Z. (2001). Supraspinal delta- and mu-opioid receptors mediate gastric mucosal protection in the rat. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 297(3), 1010–1015.
- Kost, N. V., Sokolov, O. I.u, Gabaeva, M. V., Zolotarev, I.uA., Malinin, V. V., & Khavinson, V. K.h (2003). Vliianie novykh peptidnykh bioreguliatorov livagena i épitalona na énkefalindegradiruiushchie fermenty syvorotki krovi cheloveka [Effect of new peptide bioregulators livagen and epitalon on enkephalin-degrading enzymes in human serum]. Izvestiia Akademii nauk. Seriia biologicheskaia, (4), 427–429.
Dr. Usman (BSc, MBBS, MaRCP) completed his studies in medicine at the Royal College of Physicians, London. He is an avid researcher with more than 30 publications in internationally recognized peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Usman has worked as a researcher and a medical consultant for reputable pharmaceutical companies such as Johnson & Johnson and Sanofi.