LL-37 (5mg)

(21 customer reviews)

$86.00

Discount per Quantity

QuantityDiscountPrice
5 - 95%$81.70
10 +10%$77.40
Orders over $200 receive:
FREE - 30ml bottle of bacteriostatic water
(Required for reconstitution)
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SKU: LL-37-5mg Category:

Description

LL-37 SPECIFICATIONS

AKA: CAP-18

Molecular Formula: C205H340N60O53

Molecular Weight: 4493.33 g/mol

Sequence: Leu-Leu-Gly-Asp-Phe-Phe-Arg-Lys-Ser-Lys-GluLys-Ile-Gly-Lys-Glu-Phe-Lys-Arg-Ile-Val-Gln-Arg-Ile-Lys-Asp-Phe-Leu-Arg-Asn-Leu-Val-Pro-ArgThr-Glu-Ser

PubChem: CID 16132341

CAS Number: 154947-66-7

Reconstitution: Required

What is LL-37 Peptide?

LL-37 is the only known human Cathelicidin is a big protein family where the members exhibit diverse functions. These peptides, which are produced by macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (both types of white blood cells), have bactericidal action. They have been found to have shown other substantial effects as well. The entire group is often referred to as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). LL-37, in particular, has been found to play significant roles in autoimmune disease, cancer, and wound healing.

LL-37 Peptide Research

LL-37 and Inflammatory Diseases
LL-37, although essentially known to be an antimicrobial peptide, is also involved in different inflammatory diseases such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and atherosclerosis. LL-37 plays diverse immune system modulating behaviors based on the type of cells involved and the local inflammatory environment. It has been observed to:
– reduce apoptotic death of keratinocytes,
– improve IFN-alpha synthesis,
– suppress signaling through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4),
– modify chemotaxis of neutrophils and eosinophils,
– trigger IL-18 production, and
– reduce levels of atherosclerotic plaques.
Interestingly, CAP-18 stimulates the immune system in a different manner depending on the trigger. Cell culture studies have highlighted the importance of the inflammatory environment in determining the immune response to LL-37. T-cells improve their inflammatory actions because of LL-37 when they are not activated but minimize the inflammatory action when already activated. The peptide appears to mediate homeostasis of immunological response, thus controlling it from being hyperactive when the body suffers from an infection. It helps to control levels of inflammation in autoimmune diseases. There is a strong correlation between the peptide levels and the extent of the disease. Initially, CAP-18 was thought to promote autoimmune disorder, but recent results have shown it helps to abate the damage. High levels of the peptide thus help to check further increased inflammation.

LL-37 Is a Potent Antimicrobial
It is an important biomolecule of innate immunity and is one of the initial proteins to activate when faced with an infection. Research in skin infections shows that the peptide, though present in very few amounts in the skin, accumulates very fast when invading pathogens are present. It works in conjunction with other proteins, like human beta-defensin 2, to fight infection.
LL-37 binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. LPS is critical for the membrane integrity of these bacteria. The ability of LL-37 to bind to and interfere with LPS makes it toxic for certain bacteria.Thus, it can be used exogenously to treat serious bacterial infections in people. LL-37 is powerful against gram-positive pathogens, thereby treating staph infections and other serious bacteria. In vitro research indicates that CAP-18 improves lysozyme’s effects, which destroys gram-positive bacteria like Staph aureus.

Lung Disease
LPS is found in several different organisms and, in some instances, becomes airborne when an environment is contaminated by mold or other fungi. Normal lung tissue responds by producing mucus upon LPS inhalation. Unfortunately, the response is often insufficient to intercept toxic dust syndrome and respiratory diseases like asthma and COPD, to name a few. LL-37 is being considered as an inhaled treatment for toxic dust syndrome.
LL-37 promotes the proliferation of epithelial cells and the closure of wounds in lung diseases. The peptide attracts airway epithelial cells to injury  sites and helps vascularization, wound healing, and supply of nutrition to the newly formed tissue. Thus the peptide mediates homeostasis in airways like in immune function.

Understanding LL-37 Peptide in Arthritis
Research in rats shows high LL-37 levels in joints of rats suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, if it is yet unknown if is the cause or cure for the condition. However, several findings indicate the therapeutic ability of the peptide in inflammation.
LL-37 deficiency does not change the outcomes in animal models of arthritis or lupus. Animals expressing the peptide thus show the same disease outcome as those lacking the peptide. These results prove that the physiological reactions in enhanced levels of cathelicidins in arthritis are incidental.
Peptides derived from LL-37 reduce collagen damage which occurs in inflammatory arthritis. Direct introduction of these peptides to arthritic joints in rats reduces both the severity of the disease as well as serum levels of antibodies against type II collagen. Direct involvement of interleukin-32 (IL-32) in the severity of inflammatory arthritis has been reported. LL-37 and its derivatives regulate the level of IL-32 response. Hence, it would be reasonable speculation that the peptide is protective in this disease scenario.
Synovial fluid fibroblasts increase toll-like receptor 3 levels, which worsens the arthritic condition by increasing inflammatory cytokine expression. LL-37 interacts with TLR4 and either promotes pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory outcomes. It is yet to be confirmed if CAP-18 mediates the same effect against the backdrop of increased TLR3. The peptide has selectively decreased pro-inflammatory macrophage responses in earlier studies, thus proving its regulation of inflammation to be selective.

Intestine and Intestinal Cancer
Cell culture-based findings have revealed multiple functions of LL-37 in the intestine. The peptide improves the migration of cells necessary for epithelial barrier maintenance of the intestine. LL-37 also reduces apoptosis when there is intestinal inflammation, helping to decline the causes of inflammation and the associated pathogenesis. The peptide can behave as a useful adjuvant for the treatment of inflammatory bowel conditions post intestinal surgery, during acute intestinal infections a well as for oral antibiotic therapy thus preventing GI side effects.
LL-37 pairs with human beta-defensin 2 to help in wound healing. In vitro work indicates that the peptides work simultaneously to repair and maintain the intestinal epithelium while decreasing TNF-related cell death. Despite being the principal drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel conditions, TNF-alpha inhibitors have various adverse side effects. They increase the chances of tuberculosis infection to a great extent. LL-37 based treatment will thus reduce the dependence on TNF-alpha inhibitors and, thereby mortality rate.
The use of the peptide in cancer treatment has generated mixed reviews. However, it was found to be effective in intestinal, gastric, and oral carcinomas associated with smoking and tobacco use. The treatment is vitamin D dependent as vitamin D promotes the anti-cancer function of tumor-associated macrophages through CAP-18.

Blood Vessel Growth
The peptide helps to produce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in endothelial cells. In endothelial cells, PGE2 promotes the development of blood vessels via a process called angiogenesis. It is crucial to regulate angiogenesis as it impacts cancer development, stroke outcomes, heart disease, wound healing, and more. LL-37 helps to study angiogenesis in-depth to promote it in cardiac disease and discourage cancer milieu.

Ongoing CAP-18 Peptide Research

The peptide varies in the structure of its human isoform compared to other animals. This increases its functional versatility by allowing interaction with different receptors. This feature helps scientists to study the impact of amino acid modulation to achieve specific functional outcomes.
LL-37 shows minimal to moderate side effects, low oral bioavailability and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in murine models. The dosage (per kg) in mice does not match up to humans.

All orders ship same day if placed by 2pm PST.  Synthesized and lyophilized in the USA.
This product is strictly for research/laboratory use only.  Human or animal use and/or consumption is strictly prohibited by law.  Only qualified and licensed professionals should handle these products.  Any information found on Biotech Peptides is strictly for educational purposes only.  Refer to our terms and conditions for more details.

Additional information

Brand

Biotech Peptides USA

21 reviews for LL-37 (5mg)

  1. Demi Evans

    Having just moved to the states I browsed around for a reliable peptide vendor and Im glad I found Biotech. I’ve place 3 orders so far and its been a breeze.

  2. Leo Edwards

    Great products and overall a very good shopping experience

  3. Kai Evans

    This is my go-to place for everything peptide related. love the fact that bacteriostatic water is free. – Kai

  4. Zhane Edwards

    Great experience

  5. Janavia Shilo

    I spend all of my companies budget for peptides here and I regret nothing

  6. Rae Krechia Jones

    This is a holy grail for antimicrobial purposes. Got amazing results from my research

  7. Maranda Donelle

    I got amazing results from this product. Very solid research

  8. Charolette Parmer

    Top-notch products, not gonna lie. I really wanted to hate you guys when you first came out, since the company I was using was a wee bit cheaper, but you’re really cool and I decided to splurge a bit on more qualitative products.

  9. Joe Tretter

    I’ve been buying from here so much I think I need a 50% discount code, lol. Just kidding. Unless you’re down 😀

  10. Amber Lee

    Wish they had an app as well instead of just a website.

  11. Dillon Tolbert

    Great selection of products, and great service too! The quality on this product is really good too.

  12. Trevor Miles

    This company has never let me down and I cannot say enough good stuff about it

  13. Julian Batista

    Thanks for the free Bac waters!

  14. Aria Naomi

    Peptides came in on time! Our lab runs on a strict schedule so we are very happy nothing came in broken as well.

  15. Natalie Reed

    I work for small research company and our budget can take us so far with purchases. With all the cost going up lately we could no longer afford to buy products from our peptide provider. After shopping around for a week I finally found biotech. The prices are in our range and the products turned out to be have the outmost greatest quality. A happy find!

  16. Jack Agoopi

    Super quick with sending stuff out.

  17. Harold Barns

    Everything arrived without incident. There were no misplaced or shattered vials or bottles. Nothing seems to have been altered or damaged. However, I would have appreciated if the box’s contents were clearly identified by a label.

  18. mark slader

    I’m glad a buddy referred me to this business. Because biotech offers both bargains and speedy delivery, it can’t be beaten in terms of value for money!

  19. Trey Osborn

    The blog section of the website is both educational and entertaining to me. Short, concise, and constantly up-to-date, they’re the best.

  20. Quinn Embers

    As a new client, I had a lot of questions and concerns, but customer support was always there to answer them. Thank you for taking care of all my concerns.

  21. Mario D. G.

    A mistake was made in shipping my order and they swiftly shipped the correct one while allowing me to retain possession of the incorrect product that was first sent to me by mistake.

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