Oxytocin Peptide Overview
Oxytocin is a small peptide comprising only nine amino acids, produced in the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary. It is also produced by the placenta, ovaries, testes and even adrenal glands, thymus, retina and pancreas. The active hormone is obtained by proteolytic cleavage of a larger precursor protein. It is no longer considered merely a neurohypophyseal hormone as its effects are far-reaching and includes other peptides as well.
Oxytocin is aptly defined as one protein with two independent natural functions. First, it is a neuropeptide produced by the hypothalamus and regulates bonding, sexual reproduction, and childbirth. Oxytocin is not only bloodborne but also secreted by the placenta of pregnant women to influence childbirth, milk production, and bonding with newborns. Small amounts of the protein produced from testes in men promote mating behavior and pair bonding.
AKA: Endopituitrina, Pitocin
Molecular Formula: C43H66N12O12S2
Molecular Weight: 1007.2 g/mol
PubChem: CID 439302
CAS Number: 50-56-6
Oxytocin in Wound Healing
Oxytocin regulates inflammation through inflammatory cytokines. Increased social interaction between 37 couples was observed to trigger Pitocin levels and leads to faster wound healing. Similarly, hostile equation between couples suppresses oxytocin production and delays wound healing by 40%. These hostile couples also show reduced IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-1beta at the wound site.
The hormone has been speculated to protect cardiac and vascular systems. It promotes fat burning, controls blood pressure, improves glucose intolerance and relieves anxiety. The above factors influence cardiovascular disease (CVD) and thus Pitocin can be an important adjuvant for existing CVD treatment.
Reduced oxytocin receptors can cause atherosclerosis. Oxytocin treatment overcomes the drawback of reduced receptor density and helps to maintain cardiac integrity.
Direction injection of the peptide in hearts of rats during a heart attack can prevent cellular death of cardiomyocytes. Jankoski et. al. suggested that late-term development of dilated cardiomyopathy can be addressed by chronic Endopituitrina treatment. It also helps to prime the cardiac stem cells for “tissue regeneration through direct differentiation, secretion of protective and cardiomyogenic factors, and/or their fusion with injured cardiomyocytes.”
It further controls cardiac damage due to diabetes in mice. The fat accumulation in these mice reduced by 19% and the fasting glucose levels by about 23%. Endopituitrina improves insulin resistance in the animals, establishes proper systolic and diastolic functions over control animals leading to decreased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptosis.
It protects against ischemic injuries in other tissues as well apart from the heart. Rats with priapism (persistent erection) indicate the benefit of Pitocin administration against ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing nitric oxide levels.
The peptide improves glucose uptake by skeletal muscles by boosting insulin sensitivity. It further enhances lipid utilization, dyslipidemia and body fat mass reduction. Oxytocin deficiency causes obesity even with normal food uptake and exercise thereby proving its role in energy homeostasis.
Oxytocin affects insulin, glucose and body composition in obese mice but not in lean mice. The observations prove that the peptide might be beneficial in certain settings only. The backdrop of diabetes triggers different effects on patients compared to absence of diabetes. Intranasal application of the peptide decreases levels of glucose, insulin, and exercises about 9 kg weight losses during the eight weeks of trial. As per Barengolts, “circulating oxytocin is lower in type 2 diabetes versus normoglycemic subjects and negatively correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin A1C and insulin resistance.”
Maternal deprivation at a young age can cause irreversible changes in cognitive and behavioral functioning that can last a lifetime. Mice models show oxytocin change due to less parental bonding can be a prominent cause. Oxytocin treatment in maternally deprived mice increased hormone levels for neuronal development in prefrontal cortex. Overall behavior remains constant but the cognitive ability is improved in the cohort exposed to oxytocin. Intranasal oxytocin improves learning in mice in backdrop of stress.
Oxytocin Peptide Research and Anxiety
The hormone has been related to anxiety and depression. The genetic polymorphisms in the Endopituitrina receptor gene cause social anxiety disorder and problems with attachment in childhood. Untreated patients with social anxiety have also displayed epigenetic changes in the oxytocin receptor indicating a possible compensatory pathway for pathologically suppressed levels of oxytocin. This indicates that social anxiety can be partially triggered by diminished oxytocin signaling.
Oxytocin dysregulation can lead to borderline personality disorder (BPD) as well. BPD triggers hypervigilance toward threats, extreme mistrust, and altered non-verbal social behavior. Patients given intranasal oxytocin with BPD has shown positive behavioral alterations. BPD is extremely challenging to treat and has significant short- and long-term effect on quality of life, therefore oxytocin can help to understand the pathology leading to better treatment.
Pitocin Research and Hunger
Research in a condition (Prader-Willi syndrome) marked by uncontrolled appetite has revealed that at least part of the pathology results from increased suppression of Pitocin signaling. Therefore that Endopituitrina is observed to play a role in the regulation of hunger state and in feeding behavior.
Oxytocin and Old Muscle
Oxytocin also regulates muscle maintenance. Hence, age-associated reduction in levels of the molecule leads to muscle wasting (sarcopenia). The research, carried out at Berkeley, suggests that both blood levels of the peptide and its receptors on muscle stem cells decrease with age. Exogenous use of oxytocin allows muscles to recover much of their potential for healing. According to Elabd, one of the authors of the research, “repair of muscle in the old mice was at about 80 percent” compared to younger mice after oxytocin was administered. Thus it can be potentially used to treat age-related organ degeneration and thereby slow down dysfunction.
The peptide exhibits minimal side effects, low oral bioavailability and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice. Per kg dosage in mice does not match the dose required in humans. Oxytocin is sold at Biotech Peptides strictly for educational and scientific research and not for human consumption. Buy Oxytocin peptide, only if you are a licensed researcher.