What Is Pinealon Peptide?
Pinealon is a short peptide comprising only three amino acids. It is one of the few synthetic peptides considered peptide bioregulators as they interact directly with DNA to alter gene expression levels. It causes behavior modification and protects various cell types, including neurons against hypoxia. Pinealon directly affects the pineal gland to address issues with medication metabolism, circadian rhythm disorders, memory, learning, and more.
Pinealon Interacts Directly with DNA
Pinealon, unlike most other peptides, does not bind to the cell surface or cytoplasmic receptors. Testing in cell cultures (HeLa cells) has proven that the peptide penetrates the cell membrane directly, and the nuclear membrane interacts with DNA. Thus it acts as a regulator of gene expression and mediates myriad cellular effects.
AKA: Glutamylaspartylarginine, T-33 peptide
Molecular Formula: C15H26N6O8
Molecular Weight: 418.407 g/mol
Pinealon Research and Aging
Pinealon may have anti-aging effects on the central nervous system. It is anabolic in the brain and reduces the rate of aging when examined by biological age indicators.
Pinealon influences other tissues, such as muscles, by altering irisin expression. Irisin protects muscle cells during exercise, enhances fat burning, and triggers telomere elongation. The peptide thus protects telomere and helps overcome the effects of aging and oxidative stress. Interestingly, irisin being active outside muscles, pinealon can regulate aging all over our body.
Pinealon Research and Neuron Protection
Pinealon was observed to protect neurons against oxidative stress in rats, enhancing cognitive function and motor coordination. The study showed a significant reduction in both reactive oxygen species accumulation and necrotic cells in animal brains.
The peptide thus activates proliferation pathways to modify the cell cycle as part of its protection against cell death. Under oxidative stress, this effect controls the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species.
It also increases the resistance of neurons to hypoxic stress through activation of innate anti-oxidative enzyme systems and reducing the excitotoxic effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that can be neurotoxic.
Irisin levels in the central nervous system induce genes in the hippocampus that are important to memory, learning, and overall neuron health. Exercise directly improves levels of irisin in the brain, thus associating physical activity and cognition.
Pinealon research and depression
The peptide can promote the expression of 5-tryptophan hydroxylase via epigenetic changes in brain cortex cells. 5-tryptophan hydroxylase is crucial for the production and secretion of serotonin. This peptide shows neuroprotective and geroprotective features and is the most common target of anti-depressive medications called selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Pinealon thus provides a healthier alternative to boost serotonin compared to SSRIs.
Pinealon Protects Cells from Caspase-3 and Cell Death
The peptide alters cytokine signaling that causes an increase in levels of the caspase-3 enzyme. Caspase-3 is directly initiating apoptosis through genetic instruction. By regulating caspase-3, pinealon blocks at least one pathway to cell death and thereby controls the effects of oxygen deprivation during a stroke. The peptide can reduce caspase-3 levels following myocardial infarction. The short peptide may have applications in treating heart attacks and controlling the long-term remodeling that causes dysfunction following myocardial infarction.
It also promotes cell proliferation in young and old animals by blocking apoptosis in skin cells. This increases the regenerative process and offsets age-related pathology in the skin. Pinealon may eventually form part of a multi-faceted approach to wound healing and could apply everything from sun protection to serious burn treatment.
Pinealon Research and Sleep Regulation
It does not come as a surprise that pinealon affects both the sleep-wake cycle and sleep behavior. Research indicates that pinealon may help control the dysfunction caused by shift work and other activities (e.g., long-distance travel) that interfere with normal sleep patterns. The peptide appears to reset the pineal gland to baseline in the setting of circadian rhythm disruption, improving sleep, depression, mood, blood pressure, etc.
The ability to regulate sleep is associated strongly with rates of aging. Disturbed sleep is extremely hazardous to the body and affects cognition, cardiac health, wound healing, mood, and more. Pinealon may help reduce the impact of sleep disturbance and thereby offset its effects on aging. This could be beneficial to those forced into disorder sleep due to their jobs and individuals suffering from an organic disease that impacts sleep-wake cycles.
Pinealon exhibits minimal side effects and low oral and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice. Per kg dosage in mice is not equivalent to humans.