What Is PTD-DBM Peptide?
PTD-DBM stands for Protein Transduction Domain-fused Disheveled Binding Motif. It is a synthetic peptide meant for treating causes of hair loss. It also helps in improving wound healing. It hinders hair loss by interacting with the endogenous proteins linked to hair loss, CXXC5.
It was discovered by Professor Kang-Yell Choi and his team of researchers at the Yonsei University in South Korea. The researchers studied the mechanism of hair loss and potential methods for preventing it. A cellular pathway called Wnt/β-catenin is crucial for healthy hair growth. The signaling modulated by this pathway controls hair morphogenesis, growth, and regeneration. They noticed that topical application of PTD-DBM was effective in achieving hair growth. It also prevents hair loss by controlling this pathway.
Molecular Formula: C124H22N61O28S2
Molecular Weight: 3082.65
Potential Uses of PTD-DBM Peptide
PTD-DBM and Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia
Androgenetic alopecia is also known as male pattern baldness. It is an increasingly recognized condition with significant physical and psychological effects on the sufferers. It is a progressive condition with a characterized pattern of hair loss. It starts with the recession of the frontal hairline and hair loss in the vertex or crown region of the head. It progresses to complete hair loss over the frontal and vertex scalp regions.
Hair growth occurs in three phases. These include the anagen phase (growth phase), catagen phase (regression phase), and telogen phase (resting phase). The excessive secretion of androgens (testosterone) leads to a shorter duration of the anagen phase. It led to thinner hair with rapid turnover and increased hair fall. The anagen phase lasts several years, but its duration reduces to only a few months in androgenetic alopecia.
Wnt/β-catenin signaling is the most crucial among the several cellular pathways occurring in the hair follicles that control hair growth. This signaling pathway starts with the secretion of Wnt proteins. These proteins bind with the Low-Density Lipoprotein-Related Protein (LRP), which, in turn, deactivates glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). GSK-3β is an enzyme that deactivates the β-catenin in the hair follicle.
Once stabilized, β-catenin binds with the T-cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF). The proteins generated by the activation of β-catenin-TCF/LEF lead to the regulation of hair follicle cellular proliferation.
While doing their research, Professor Kang-Yell Choi and the team noticed one consistent thing. They found that a specific protein called CXXC-type zinc finger protein 5 (CXXC5) was excessively expressed in the scalps of alopecia sufferers. CXXC5 triggers the signaling pathways leading to a downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin. This observation has been confirmed by animal studies where mice not expressing CXXC5 did not show features of male-pattern baldness.
CXXC5 works by binding with another type of protein called Dvl protein. The CXXC5 and Dvl Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) leads to the downregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. As the Wnt/β-catenin pathway gets downregulated, it interferes with the generation of new hair follicles and the growth of existing ones.
PTD-DBM interferes with CXXC5 and Dvl Protein to Protein Interaction (PPI). It leads to increased growth of hair follicles. Also, due to this interaction, the hair follicles spend more time in the anagen phase of the hair cycle. This process leads to healthier and stronger hair. This process also prevents excessive hair loss and might be an effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia. The action of PTD-DBM enhances even further when used in combination with substances such as valproic acid.
Accelerated Wound Healing
The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays a crucial role in wound healing and fibrosis of skin breaks. One of the regulators of this pathway is CXXC-type zinc finger protein 5 (CXXC5). It functions by negative feedback regulation. CXXC5 interacts with the Disheveled (Dvl) protein and downregulates the action of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The CXXC5−/−knockout mice showed accelerated healing of skin wounds. They also exhibit increased keratin and collagen synthesis.
PTD-DBM functions to prevent the action of the CXXC5-Dvl domain. It achieves that by preventing the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) between CXXC5 and Dvl proteins. This achievement results in an upregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. This upregulation leads to better skin wound healing by increasing keratin and collagen synthesis and by accelerating dermal fibrosis.
This property of PTD-DBM can have several implications. PTD-DBM can be used in aesthetics where quicker wound healing is needed. PTD-DBM can also be used in conditions where wound healing is compromised due to several reasons.
Does PTD-DBM Have Any Side Effects?
PTD-DBM has yet not received approval from the FDA for use for baldness or to accelerate wound healing. However, the research is promising, and the product will be approved soon. Another factor that might facilitate its approval is its safety profile. Researchers suggest that PTD-DBM has an excellent safety profile and has no toxic side effects.
To conclude, PTD-DBM is a promising peptide. It might revolutionize the future of hair growth and regeneration. It might be the most significant breakthrough in the treatment of male-pattern baldness.