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Thymalin peptides are Synthesized and Lyophilized in the USA.
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What is the Thymalin Peptide?
The Thymalin peptide (also known as Thymalin Alpha 1) is the synthetic variant of Thymulin obtained from the thymus in 1977. Thymalin has been researched for its potential to regulate inflammation and pain, neuroprotective properties, and its role in promoting immune function. Early studies have suggested that thymalin and other thymus and pineal gland secretions may also increase longevity of life.
AKA: Nonathymulin, Thymic Factor, Serum Thymic Factor, Thymalin Alpha 1
Molecular Formula: C33H54N12O15
Molecular Weight: 858.9 g/mol
PubChem: CID 3085284
CAS Number: 63958-90-7
Thymalin and Lifespan
Research in Russia at the beginning of the 21st century lead scientists to hypothesize that Thymalin may normalize various baseline physiologic functions in people 65 years and older. The older adults in the study showed improved cardiovascular, immune, and nervous system function. Improved metabolism and a trend toward homeostasis typical of a youthful person were also observed in them. Overall, a significant reduction in acute respiratory disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease, and symptoms of arthritis was observed. The population consuming Thymalin over the course of the trial revealed 2-fold reduction in mortality rate. Thymalin appears to act synergistically with certain thymic and pineal gland isolates, controlling mortality rate by about 4-fold when combined with epithalmin. This potential is not surprising as both the thymus and pineal glands are associated with aging. In fact, upon optimal function, the pineal gland protects the thymus from the degenerative effects of age.
Thymalin and Immune System Functionality
Thymalin studies suggest the peptide essentially modifies cellular immunity and levels of lymphocyte subpopulations and thus regulates T-cell differentiation and natural killer (NK) cell activity. It is relevant as chronic conditions like diabetes tend to diminish immune power and increase susceptibility to various infections and cancer. The peptide may improve immune correction, T cell proliferation, and control of retinal inflammation and delays the progression of diabetic retinopathy. This same benefit is suggested in the chronic immunodeficiency/immune dysregulation of HIV. The combination of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and Thymalin appears to reverse damage to the immune system and improves the numbers of CD4+ T-cells in patients with HIV. Thymalin may be an effective adjuvant to an HIV vaccine by boosting T-cell responses and leading to greater protection. Thus the peptide’s adjuvant property has the potential to improve the efficacy and safety of vaccine administration at lower and less frequent doses and even using less virulent pathogens. Rats show a decline in thymic function, weight loss, and a decrease in cell proliferation when the thymus is surgically removed. The use of the peptide appeared to prevent the onset of the above physiological changes and instead an improved immune function, lowered risk of infection, and overall improved health was observed by scientists.
Nonathymulin Research and Cancer
Research in mice suggests that Thymalin may be an effective adjuvant to pulsed laser radiation used to treat certain types of cancer. Neodymium lasers are frequently used to treat cancerous and precancerous skin lesions (including melanoma) with moderate to high success rates. The technique is particularly useful for preventing metastasis. A combination of Thymalin and radiation therapy is more effective as the peptide appears to boost the number of antibody-producing cells in the spleen. It is thought that this may have a greater suppressive effect on the tumor and attain higher remission rates or cure. Studies suggest Nonathymulin need not be combined with radiation therapy for its anti-cancer effects. Research in rats observed that sub-therapeutic doses of the molecule block tumor growth in nearly 80% of cases and tumor regression in more than half of the animals in the experiment. According to the researchers “High efficiency of Thymalin can be attributed to the use of lower doses of the substance and their modulation during the treatment course in accordance with the regimes of activation therapy.” The peptide, when combined with plasmapheresis, exhibited potential for chronic lympholeukemia therapy. The peptide/plasmapheresis combination appears to engage in hematological compensation more than standard chemotherapeutic agents. The treatment also appeared to improve lymphoid activity. Thus, Thymalin may increase the return of the blood system to a state of homeostasis when combined with plasmapheresis and may also lead to faster clinical and blood-based measures of remission.
Thymalin and Psoriasis
Psoriasis is a specific inflammatory condition of the skin and joints. A combination of standard treatments for psoriasis with Thymalin has yielded improved laboratory measures of the condition. Significantly, these improvements in laboratory measures of psoriasis activity correspond well with improvement in a patient’s clinical status. This suggests that Thymalin may have a measurable, observable influence on the status of the disease.
Thymalin and Tuberculosis Research
Patients suffering from severe progressive pulmonary tuberculosis were administered standard antibiotic therapy or antibiotic therapy plus Thymalin. The groups receiving the Thymalin peptide were observed to hold a higher clinical recovery rate than the other cohort. Customizing the combination per patient need resulted in a nearly 95% cure rate. The peptide may therefore have the potential to help fight medicine-resistant tuberculosis. Patients with low T cell count and inferior blast transformation have poor cellular immunity; The situation is further aggravated if the patients have a history of diabetes. The peptide appears to strongly enable the body to fight infections in such patients.
Thymalin and Kidney Disease
Thymalin has been studied for its potential to improve the health condition of people suffering from inflammatory kidney disease and chronic glomerulonephritis. In one Russian research study, the peptide was reported to enhance kidney function and blood indices of inflammation. Researchers reported there was overall betterment of immunity, which reduced kidney damage and delayed chances of dialysis/kidney transplant.
Thymalin and Circadian Rhythm Disturbances
Studies in rats have shown thymic factor alterations may cause changes in circadian rhythms leading to modified immunity. Seasonal changes in the day-night cycle can vary the peak levels of thymus function, thereby suppressing the immune system. Therefore the antibody levels get modified, and this lends suggestion as to why we are prone to colds and the flu during shorter winter days. Older adults are also more susceptible to cold as their circadian patterns alter with aging. Studies suggested that use of the peptide did not reset the circadian changes but rather boosted immune depletion. The researchers noted that “The chronic (18 mo) administration of thymus preparation thymalin increased FTS titer and promoted the appearance of the peak of antibodies in autumn.” This suggests the peptide having more potential in preventing infection and may be more effective than vaccines such as the flu vaccine. However, further research in this area is called for.
Thymalin and Heart Disease, Atherosclerosis
Cardiac disease is easier to prevent than treat. After onset, it can only be reversed through extreme dieting, demanding a lot of time and dedication. As per research in rabbits, the peptide appears to regulate lipid levels in the body and mediate plaque removal from the arterial wall by lymphocytes. Thymalin may normalize T-cell suppressor activity and sensitivity, thus controlling or abolishing the immune dysfunction causing plaque formation. In short, Thymalin peptide may have the potential to overcome the dysfunction due to which our immunity cannot control cardiac diseases.
Thymalin and Postoperative Risk and Complications
Russian studies have observed the possible efficacy of the peptide against post-operative infection and inflammation. Infection and blood clots form the most dangerous complications post-surgery. A major cause of death in postoperative orthopedic surgery is infection. Thus the peptide has potential to be used for reducing such life-threatening risks and giving confidence to patients for these crucial surgeries.
Thymalin and Gum Disease
Periodontitis is an inflammation of the gums and the allied oral structures that support the teeth. It can be painful and serve as a common cause of tooth loss. Periodontitis is very difficult to treat once its onset has initiated. Nonathymulin has been studied for its potential influence in the reduction of inflammation and bacterial infections.
Thymalin and Anorexia
Anorexia nervous is often associated with varying degrees of circulating thyroid hormones. Hence immune function and peripheral lymphocyte prevalence may be compromised. Thymalin use in experimental studies appeared to reverse thymic atrophy in this backdrop. Such patients would require zinc supplements as well to obtain maximum efficacy of Thymalin as researchers suggest the peptide function is regulated by zinc.
Thymalin and Immune Regulation
The peptide is widely studied for its potential to improve immune function in the body. It has been observed to improve T cell function and thus the various aspects of cellular immunity like infection, inflammation, cancer, and cardiac disease in research studies. The peptide has already been a component of experimental clinical therapy in the backdrop of different conditions. It appears to help boost efficacy of both vaccines and antibiotics thus helping to control superbug infections. Experimental studies report that Thymalin appears to exhibit minimal side effects, low oral bioavailability, and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice. The dosage (per kg) in mice does not scale to humans.
- Khavinson, V. K.h, & Morozov, V. G. (2003). Peptides of pineal gland and thymus prolong human life. Neuro endocrinology letters, 24(3-4), 233–240.
- Zhaboiedov, H. D., Bychkova, N. H., Skrypnik, R. L., & Sydorova, M. V. (2001). Doslidzhennia stanu klitynnoho i humoral’noho imunitetu ta vyznachennia indyvidual’noï chutlyvosti T-limfotsytiv do imunokorektoriv u khvorykh s diabetychnoiu retynopatiieiu [Evaluation of cellular and humoral immunity and individual sensitivity of T-lymphocytes to immunocorrectors in patients with diabetic retinopathy]. Likars’ka sprava, (1), 53–56.
- Zhukova, G. V., Schikhlyarova, A. I., Barteneva, T. A., Shevchenko, A. N., & Zakharyuta, F. M. (2018). Effect of Thymalin on the Tumor and Thymus under Conditions of Activation Therapy In Vivo. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine, 165(1), 80–83. doi:10.1007/s10517-018-4104-z.
- Isaeva, M. P., Budazhabon, G. B., & Kuznik, B. I. (1989). Vliianie timalina na pokazateli immuniteta i gemostaza u bol’nykh rasprostranennymi formami psoziaza [The effect of thymalin on indices of immunity and hemostasis in patients with disseminated forms of psoriasis]. Vestnik dermatologii i venerologii, (10), 42–43.
- Maslennikov, A. A., Kamenev, V. F., & Kolomiets, V. M. (2007). Problemy tuberkuleza i boleznei legkikh, (9), 30–33.
- Budazhabon, G. V., Kuznik, B. I., Morozov, V. G., Orlova, N. N., & Khavinson, V. K.h (1984). Sostoianie immunogeneza i gemostaza u bol’nykh s obostreniem khronicheskogo glomerulonefrita, lechennykh timalinom [Immunogenesis and hemostasis in patients with exacerbated chronic glomerulonephritis treated with thymalin]. Terapevticheskii arkhiv, 56(10), 62–66.
- Labunets’ I. F. (2001). Vikovi zminy tsyrkadnykh i tsyrkanual’nykh kolyvan’ velychyny imunnoï vidpovidi ta chysla klityn u limfoïdnykh orhanakh tvaryn: mozhlyvyĭ zv’iazok z faktoramy tymusa [Age-related changes in circadian and circannual fluctuations of the immune response and the number of cells in lymphoid organs of animals: a possible connection to thymic factors]. Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal (Kiev, Ukraine : 1994), 47(5), 54–62.
- Ryzhenkov, V. E., Ogurtsov, R. P., Trubacheva, V. V., Popov, V. G., & Puzyreva, V. P. (1988). Vliianie timalina na razvitie éksperimental’noĭ giperlipidemii i ateroskleroza [Effect of thymalin on the development of experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis]. Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 34(1), 51–56.
- Zhumadilov, Z.hS.h, & Terekhova, R. P. (1985). Primenenie timalina dlia profilaktiki posleoperatsionnykh gnoĭno-vospalitel’nykh oslozhneniĭ [Use of thymalin for preventing postoperative suppurative and inflammatory complications]. Klinicheskaia khirurgiia, (1), 36–38.
- Kuznik, B. I., Khavinson, V. K.h, Morozova, V. G., Budazhabon, G. B., & Budazhabon, N. G. (1985). Primenenie timalina dlia lecheniia bol’nykh parodontitom [Use of thymalin in treating periodontitis patients]. Stomatologiia, 64(1), 20–22.
- Wade, S., Bleiberg, F., Mossé, A., Lubetzki, J., Flavigny, H., Chapuis, P., Roche, D., Lemonnier, D., & Dardenne, M. (1985). Thymulin (Zn-facteur thymique serique) activity in anorexia nervosa patients. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 42(2), 275–280. doi:10.1093/ajcn/42.2.275.
Dr. Usman (BSc, MBBS, MaRCP) completed his studies in medicine at the Royal College of Physicians, London. He is an avid researcher with more than 30 publications in internationally recognized peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Usman has worked as a researcher and a medical consultant for reputable pharmaceutical companies such as Johnson & Johnson and Sanofi.