What Is Thymalin Peptide?
Thymalin is the synthetic variant of thymulin obtained from the thymus in 1977. Thymalin regulates inflammation and pain, is neuroprotective, and is crucial in immune function. Early studies have revealed that thymalin and other thymus and pineal gland secretions can enhance life.
AKA: Nonathymulin, Thymic Factor, Serum Thymic Factor
Molecular Formula: C33H54N12O15
Molecular Weight: 858.9 g/mol
PubChem: CID 3085284
CAS Number: 63958-90-7
Thymalin Alpha 1 Research
Thymalin Research and Life Extension
Research in Russia at the beginning of the 21st century revealed that thymalin normalizes various baseline physiologic functions in people 65 years and older. The older adults in the study showed improved cardiovascular, immune, and nervous system function. Improved metabolism and a trend toward homeostasis typical of a youthful person were also observed in them. Overall, a significant reduction in acute respiratory disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease, and symptoms of arthritis was observed. The population consuming thymalin over the course of the trial revealed 2-fold reduction in mortality rate.
Thymalin acts synergistically with certain thymic and pineal gland isolates, controlling mortality rate by about 4-fold when combined with epithalmin. This is not surprising as both the thymus and pineal glands are associated with aging. In fact, upon optimal function, the pineal gland protects the thymus from the degenerative effects of age.
Research in Immune System Function
Thymalin essentially modifies cellular immunity and levels of lymphocyte subpopulations and thus regulates T-cell differentiation and natural killer (NK) cell activity. It is relevant as chronic conditions like diabetes tend to diminish immune power and increase susceptibility to various infections and cancer.
The peptide causes immune correction, T cell proliferation, and control of retinal inflammation and thus delays the progression of diabetic retinopathy. This same benefit is evident in the chronic immunodeficiency/immune dysregulation of HIV. The combination of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and thymalin reverses damage to the immune system and improves the numbers of CD4+ T-cells in patients with HIV.
Thymalin can be an effective adjuvant to an HIV vaccine by boosting T-cell responses and leading to greater protection. Thus the peptide’s adjuvant property improves the efficacy and safety of vaccine administration at lower and less frequent doses and even using less virulent pathogens.
Rats show a decline in thymic function, weight loss, and a decrease in cell proliferation when the thymus is surgically removed. The use of the peptide prevents the onset of the above physiological changes and results in improved immune function, minimized risk of infection, and overall improved health.
Nonathymulin Research and Cancer
Research in mice shows that thymalin may be an effective adjuvant to pulsed laser radiation used to treat certain types of cancer. Neodymium lasers are frequently used to treat cancerous and precancerous skin lesions (including melanoma) with moderate to high success rates. The technique is particularly useful for preventing metastasis. A combination of thymalin and radiation therapy is more effective as the peptide boosts the number of antibody-producing cells in the spleen. It is thought that this may have a greater suppressive effect on the tumor and attain higher remission rates or cure.
Nonathymulin need not be combined with radiation therapy for its anti-cancer effects. Research in rats shows that sub-therapeutic doses of the molecule block tumor growth in nearly 80% of cases and tumor regression in more than half of the animals in the experiment.
The peptide, when combined with plasmapheresis, is beneficial for chronic lympholeukemia. The peptide/plasmapheresis combination effectively engages in hematological compensation more than standard chemotherapeutic agents. The treatment also improved lymphoid activity. Thus, thymalin increases the return of the blood system to a state of homeostasis when combined with plasmapheresis and leads to faster clinical and blood-based measures of remission.
Psoriasis is a specific inflammatory condition of the skin and joints. A combination of standard treatments for psoriasis with thymalin has yielded improved laboratory measures of the condition. Significantly, these improvements in laboratory measures of psoriasis activity correspond well with improvement in a patient’s clinical status. This indicates that thymalin has a measurable, observable influence on the status of the disease.
Patients suffering from severe progressive pulmonary tuberculosis were administered standard antibiotic therapy or antibiotic therapy plus thymalin. The groups receiving the thymalin peptide showed higher clinical recovery than the other cohort. Customizing the combination per patient need resulted in a nearly 95% cure rate. This helps to fight drug-resistant tuberculosis, which is challenging to treat.
Patients with low T cell count and inferior blast transformation have poor cellular immunity; The situation further aggravates if the patients have a history of diabetes. The peptide strongly enables the body to fight infections in such patients.
Thymalin Fights Kidney Disease
Thymalin improves the health condition of people suffering from inflammatory kidney disease and chronic glomerulonephritis. In Russian patients, the drug enhanced kidney function and blood indices of inflammation. There was overall betterment of immunity which reduced kidney damage and delayed chances of dialysis/kidney transplant.
Circadian Rhythm Disturbances
Studies in rats have shown thymic factor alterations to cause changes in circadian rhythms leading to modified immunity. Seasonal changes in the day-night cycle can vary the peak levels of thymus function, thereby suppressing the immune system. Thus the antibody levels get modified, and hence we are prone to why colds and the flu during shorter winter days. Older adults are also more susceptible to cold as their circadian patterns alter with aging. The use of the molecule does not reset the circadian changes but boosts the immune depletion, which happens alongside. This makes the peptide more beneficial in preventing infection and more effective than vaccines such as the flu vaccine.
Heart Disease and Atherosclerosis
Cardiac disease is easier to prevent than treat. After onset, it can only be reversed through extreme dieting, demanding a lot of time and dedication. As per research in rabbits, the peptide regulates lipid levels in the body and mediates plaque removal from the arterial wall by lymphocytes. Thymalin normalizes T-cell suppressor activity and sensitivity, thus controlling or abolishing the immune dysfunction causing plaque formation. In short, thymalin peptide overcomes the dysfunction due to which our immunity cannot control cardiac diseases.
Postoperative Risk and Complications
Russian studies have highlighted the efficacy of the peptide against post-operative infection and inflammation. Infection and blood clots form the most dangerous complications post-surgery. A major cause of death in postoperative orthopedic surgery is infection. Thus the peptide has immense potential to be used for reducing such life-threatening risks and giving confidence to patients for these crucial surgeries.
Thymalin Peptide Research and Gum Disease
Periodontitis is an inflammation of the gums and the allied oral structures that support the teeth. It can be painful and serve as a common cause of tooth loss. Periodontitis is very difficult to treat once its onset has initiated. Nonathymulin can reduce inflammation and reduce bacterial infections.
Thymalin Research and Anorexia
Anorexia nervous is often associated with varying degrees of circulating thyroid hormones. Hence immune function and peripheral lymphocyte prevalence get compromised. Thymalin use reverses thymic atrophy in this backdrop. Such patients would require zinc supplements as well to obtain maximum efficacy of thymalin as the peptide function is regulated by zinc.
The peptide is essentially known to improve immune function in the body. It restores T cell function and thus the various aspects of cellular immunity like infection, inflammation, cancer, and cardiac disease. The peptide has already been a component of clinical therapy in the backdrop of different conditions. It helps boost efficacy of both vaccines and antibiotics thus helping to control superbug infections.
Thymalin exhibits minimal side effects, low oral bioavailability, and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice. The dosage (per kg) in mice does not scale to humans.