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Thymosin Alpha 1 (10mg)
Thymosin Alpha 1 peptides are Synthesized and Lyophilized in the USA.
Discount per Quantity
|Quantity||5 - 9||10 +|
FREE - 30ml bottle of bacteriostatic water
(Required for reconstitution)
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What is the Thymosin (Alpha 1) peptide?
Thymosin Alpha 1, discovered in 1972, is a naturally occurring peptide fragment researched in trials for cystic fibrosis, infection (e.g., tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus), respiratory disorders, chronic hepatitis, and cancer.
Molecular Formula: C129H215N33O55
Molecular Weight: 3108.3 g/mol
PubChem: CID 16130571
CAS Number: 62304-98-7
Thymosin Alpha 1 Research
Thymosin Alpha 1 and the Immune System
Thymosin Alpha 1, first isolated from thymus gland tissue, has the potential to act as a strong regulator of immune function. The thymus controls T-cell maturation and differentiation. T-cells are central to operations of the adaptive immune system as they carry the memory of past infections and enhance the function of other immune cells for better protection against infections. Murine models lacking thymus glands show that Thymosin Alpha 1 may be capable of restoring immune function and preventing widespread infection. The scientists outline that “studies have demonstrated improvements in immune system cell subsets and the potential of Ta1 for the treatment of a range of diseases.” The peptide appears to stimulate signaling pathways to produce cytokines and other molecules that coordinate the activities of various cells in the immune system. In other words, Thymalfasin may have a widespread positive impact on the immune system. The peptide is also potentially helpful in vaccine construction. Right now, many vaccines consisting of inactivated (killed) pathogens are less effective in immune stimulation. The peptide may help to achieve the required level of stimulus for such vaccines. The end result would be both immune stimulation and longevity of the immunity, especially for fatal infections such as HIV and avian influenza. Sepsis is a life-threatening condition triggered by an extreme immune response to infection. Should the peptide prove its potential in being immunomodulatory, it may help control sepsis, thereby saving lives and preventing organ damage. It may thus reduce the mortality rate in sepsis and controls long-term complications. It may soon be approved as adjuvant therapy for sepsis.
Thymosin Alpha 1 and Nerve Growth
The immune system promotes growth, development, and maintenance of the central nervous system, especially in developing mammals. Research in the peptide suggests it may boost neurodevelopment in mice, improving cognitive function when administered peripherally. It appears to modulate several genes responsible for neuron growth and the development of neuronal synapses. It may also promote growth and development and prevent inflammation and neuron dysfunction. In short, it has the potential to enhance brain structure and numerous cognitive functions. The molecule may potentially address neurodevelopmental delays, such as cerebral palsy.
Thymosin Alpha 1 and Fungus
Dendritic cells are important for recognizing fungal infections. The peptide appears to help in dendritic cell maturation, thereby making the immune system more capable of fighting fungal infections. It was observed to activate T-helper cells in murine models of aspergillus (a type of server fungus) infection and may therefore be used as adjuvant therapy in future. Dendritic cells operate by taking antigens, like bacteria and fungi, and presenting them to other immune system cells to recognize the antigens and respond appropriately. Dendritic cells are abundant in the skin, nose, lungs, and GI system and are one of the immune system’s first responders. The peptide’s potential for regulation of dendritic cells would affect immune system functioning at one of its most fundamental levels.
Thymosin Alpha-1 and Hepatitis
The peptide may potentially treat chronic hepatitis B and C infections by triggering immune responses and acting as an adjuvant to improve vaccine efficacy.
Thymosin Alpha 1 and HIV Research
Despite the development of antiretroviral therapy, immunity does not get restored completely. Interestingly, the therapy has been implicated in a deficit of cytotoxic T-cells and consistent inflammatory situations. The peptide has been studied for its potential influence in restoring immunity and overall quality of life in patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It may also help the body to fight HIV infection by stimulating CD8 T-cells to release factors that inhibit HIV infection of other immune cells. It is possible therefore, that the peptide may also stop latent HIV from becoming active.
Thymosin Alpha 1 and Blood Pressure
A recent study has observed that Thymalfasin appears to block an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and thus controls blood pressure. According to the scientists “Thα1 possess a multifunctional peptide with dual antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory properties.” ACE is a common target of prescription medicines in certain patients with high blood pressure. Inhibition of ACE not only lowers blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels, but can decrease cardiac remodeling, delay the progression of atherosclerosis (plaque development), and enhance kidney function. Existing medications also show various side effects. The peptide may offer the benefits of ACE inhibition without the ill effects of approved and available medicines.
Thymosin Alpha 1 and Cancer Research
Research on human lung cancer cells (A549) suggested the anti-proliferative function of Thymosin Alpha 1, reducing both the growth and metastasis of cancerous cells. The peptide appears to control cell migration and penetration of cancer cells into surrounding tissue (i.e., invasion). The combination of Thymosin Alpha 1 with dacarbazine, a common chemotherapeutic medicine, showed an improved progression-free survival rate as well as controlled rates of toxicity in experimental studies. The peptide may boost the effects of the chemotherapy in reducing cell proliferation. The peptide’s natural occurrence may promote it a cancer vaccine component designed to prevent tumor development rather than cancer therapy. A long-acting variant of Thymosin Alpha 1 has been tested against breast cancer cells in mice. The modified molecule appeared to be more potent in cancer cell growth inhibition. The modified peptide was reported to boost levels of CD4 and CD8 cells while increasing interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 levels in parallel. This was explicitly beneficial in patients treated with steroids for the swelling related to certain cancers. Thymosin Alpha 1 has been the subject of investigation in many different cancers. Initial results have been positive potential in:
– Breast cancer
– Melanoma cancer
– Liver cancer
– Lung cancer
– Colon cancer
Thymosin Alpha 1 and Inflammatory Pain
Inflammatory pain is transmitted via specific peripheral and central nervous system pathways. Given strong anti-inflammatory outcomes of Thymosin Alpha 1 seen in research studies so far, the molecule may effectively reduce pain. Murine research suggests the hypothesis is correct and has noted the specific pathways blocked by the peptide. It appears to act directly at the site of inflammation to reduce the production of cytokines and other molecules (e.g., TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, etc.) that trigger pain. Its action appears different from typical anti-inflammatory pain relievers and may improve pain relief with fewer side effects than existing drugs.
Thymosin Alpha 1 and Cystic Fibrosis
A crucial complication of cystic fibrosis (CF) is extended inflammation causing poor mucous clearance, increased rates of infection, and associated issues. They arise from a misfolding of a specific protein called CFTR. The peptide has been studied for its potential to reduce inflammation and improve the function of the CFTR protein and thus has the potential to offer an effective single-molecule therapeutic approach to treating CF.
Thymosin Alpha 1 and Tooth Damage
The peptide may improve the healing of the gums and soft tissue surrounding the injury caused by the avulsed and replanted tooth and promotes survival of the replanted tooth. Though preliminary, the research findings suggest that Thymosin Alpha 1 may benefit traumatic tooth damage, making it easier for dentists to rescue teeth that have been knocked out.
The Future of Thymosin Alpha 1
The potential applications of Thymosin Alpha 1 are too diverse to be reasonably listed. Research is focused on ways to improve its efficacy and cost of production. Variants of the peptide will be studied in the coming years. It has shown great promise as an immune system modulator with few side effects in cancer. Studies report Thymosin Alpha 1 to exhibit minimal side effects, low oral bioavailability, and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice. Per kg dosage in mice does not match to humans.
- King R, Tuthill C. Immune Modulation with Thymosin Alpha 1 Treatment. Vitam Horm. 2016;102:151-78. doi: 10.1016/bs.vh.2016.04.003. Epub 2016 May 24. PMID: 27450734.
- Pei F, Guan X, Wu J. Thymosin alpha 1 treatment for patients with sepsis. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2018 Jul;18(sup1):71-76. doi: 10.1080/14712598.2018.1484104. PMID: 30063866.
- Wang G, He F, Xu Y, Zhang Y, Wang X, Zhou C, Huang Y, Zou J. Immunopotentiator Thymosin Alpha-1 Promotes Neurogenesis and Cognition in the Developing Mouse via a Systemic Th1 Bias. Neurosci Bull. 2017 Dec;33(6):675-684. doi: 10.1007/s12264-017-0162-x. Epub 2017 Aug 5. PMID: 28780644; PMCID: PMC5725380.
- Romani L, Bistoni F, Gaziano R, Bozza S, Montagnoli C, Perruccio K, Pitzurra L, Bellocchio S, Velardi A, Rasi G, Di Francesco P, Garaci E. Thymosin alpha 1 activates dendritic cells for antifungal Th1 resistance through toll-like receptor signaling. Blood. 2004 Jun 1;103(11):4232-9. doi: 10.1182/blood-2003-11-4036. Epub 2004 Feb 24. PMID: 14982877.
- Goldstein AL, Goldstein AL. From lab to bedside: emerging clinical applications of thymosin alpha 1. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2009 May;9(5):593-608. doi: 10.1517/14712590902911412. PMID: 19392576.
- Matteucci C, Grelli S, Balestrieri E, Minutolo A, Argaw-Denboba A, Macchi B, Sinibaldi-Vallebona P, Perno CF, Mastino A, Garaci E. Thymosin alpha 1 and HIV-1: recent advances and future perspectives. Future Microbiol. 2017 Feb;12:141-155. doi: 10.2217/fmb-2016-0125. Epub 2017 Jan 20. PMID: 28106477.
- Kharazmi-Khorassani J, Asoodeh A, Tanzadehpanah H. Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of thymosin alpha-1 (Thα1) peptide. Bioorg Chem. 2019 Jun;87:743-752. doi: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.04.003. Epub 2019 Apr 4. PMID: 30974297.
- Kharazmi-Khorassani J, Asoodeh A. Thymosin alpha-1; a natural peptide inhibits cellular proliferation, cell migration, the level of reactive oxygen species and promotes the activity of antioxidant enzymes in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line (A549). Environ Toxicol. 2019 Aug;34(8):941-949. doi: 10.1002/tox.22765. Epub 2019 May 8. PMID: 31067016.
- Day P, Duggal M. Interventions for treating traumatised permanent front teeth: avulsed (knocked out) and replanted. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD006542. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006542.pub2. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Feb 05;2:CD006542. PMID: 20091594.
Dr. Usman (BSc, MBBS, MaRCP) completed his studies in medicine at the Royal College of Physicians, London. He is an avid researcher with more than 30 publications in internationally recognized peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Usman has worked as a researcher and a medical consultant for reputable pharmaceutical companies such as Johnson & Johnson and Sanofi.