What Is MOTS-c Peptide?
MOTS-c is the abbreviation for Mitochondrial-Derived Peptide (MDP). Recent research shows that MOTS-c is a bioactive hormone closely associated with mitochondrial communication and energy regulation.
Initially, inference proved it to be the most active in the mitochondria. Recent research proves otherwise, and MOTS-c can make their way into the bloodstream—exhibiting the systematic effect.
It is important to note that MOTS-c is a newly identified MDP. Its primary roles are longevity, exercise capacity, metabolism of weight regulation, and processes leading to disease states such as osteoporosis.
MOTS-c was identified as a natural peptide because researchers found it in cell nuclei and general circulation.
Sequence Formula: Met-Arg-Trp-Gln-Glu-Met-Gly-Tyr-Ile-Phe-Tyr-Pro-Arg-Lys-Leu-Arg
Molecular Formula: C101H152N28O22S2
Molecular Weight: 2174.64g/mol
PubChem: SID 255386757
Synonyms: 12S rRNA-c, MT-RNR1
The Role of MOTS-c in Fat Metabolism
Oestrogen research in mice models show that the availability of the hormone at low levels can increase fat mass and dysfunction of normal adipose tissues. Consequent to this trend, there is an increased risk of developing diabetes and insulin resistance. The administration of MOTS-c in these mice models increased the function of brown fat and reduced the accumulation of adipose tissue. The peptide, to an extent, blocks adipose dysfunction and inflammation that follows insulin resistance.
A fraction of MOTS-c’s induced effect on fat metabolism is mediated via AMPK pathway activation. The AMPK pathway is activated when cellular energy levels are low, which spurs glucose and fatty acid uptake by cells for metabolism. MOTS-c acts directly on the methionine folate cycle, enhancing AICAR levels and AMPK activation.
Scientific records from mice show that in obesity, MOTS-c is a vital regulator of monoacylglycerol, dicarboxylate, and sphingolipid metabolism. By reducing the activity of these pathways and enhancing beta-oxidation, MOTS-c can halt fat accumulation. Most of these effects are due to the action of the peptide in the nucleus.
The dysregulation of fat metabolism in mitochondria could cause a lack of fat oxidation, resulting in increased levels of fat circulation as the body boosts insulin levels to flush out lipids from the bloodstream. In addition to this trend, there is enhanced deposition of fat and a change in the body’s homeostasis as it subjects itself to increased insulin levels.
The Roles of MOTS-c in Muscle Metabolism
MOTS-c, according to research in mice, show that it can cause a change in age-dependent insulin-resistant muscles, with improved glucose uptake by muscles. This action is possible by bettering the skeletal muscle response to the activation of AMPK activation, which sequentially increases the expression of glucose transporters. This activation is not dependent on the insulin pathway and presents another means of enhancing muscle glucose uptake when insulin is defective or inept. The outcome is enhanced muscle growth, better muscle function, and reduced insulin resistance.
The Effect of MOTS-c on Osteoporosis
MOTS-c is functional in type I collagen synthesis by osteoblasts in bone. Osteoblast cells, according to research, prove that MOTS-c influences the TGF-beta/SMAD pathway that controls the health and survival of osteoblasts. Osteoblasts improve osteoblast survival, thereby bettering the synthesis of type I collagen and its strength and integrity.
According to scientific studies, osteoporosis has proven that MOTS-c enhances bone marrow—stem cell differentiation via the action of the TGF-beta/SMAD pathway. According to these studies, this will result in enhanced osteogenesis, including the enhancement of osteoblast survival and stem cell development.
How MOTS-c Influences Insulin Sensitivity
In insulin-resistant & sensitive patients, MOTS-c posits to be vital in the pathogenesis of insulin insensitivity but not in sustaining the condition.
Suggestions made by scientists posit that the peptide may be vital in the examination of pre-diabetic patients—early warning of potential insulin insensitivity could be a consequence of the changes in MOTS-c levels.
The administration of MOTS-c in this trend may help avert insulin resistance and the buildup of diabetes. It is due to note that more research needs to be carried out to discern the full effect of MOTS-c on insulin regulation.
The Role of MOTS-c in Improving the Health of the Heart
A higher risk of endothelial cell dysfunction was reported in humans with coronary angiography. Endothelial cells, on the other hand, are cells that line the inner wall of blood vessels and are vital in regulating blood clotting, blood pressure, and plaque function. Further scientific studies prove that MOTS-c does not alter the responsiveness of blood vessels directly; it alternatively sharpens endothelial cells to the signaling effects of other molecules like acetylcholine. Administering the peptide in mice has improved endothelial, microvascular, and epicardial blood vessel functions.
Research records show three MDPs alongside the MOTS-c function to stave off inflammation and stress in cardiomyocytes. It is acceptable that a down-regulation of MDP could cause a risk of the development of cardiovascular diseases. MOTS-c may be vital in reperfusion injury and endothelial functions.
MOTS-c and Longevity
A change in glutamate residue for lysine at the 14th position of the protein is a consequence of changes in the gene MOTS-c. Though, it is not sure how this can influence the functional properties of MOTS-c.
Nonetheless, a change in both structure and function of the MOTS-c gene is seen, which results in phenomenal longevity in people with Northeast Asian genealogy.
In a research conducted by Dr. Changhan David Lee—a researcher at the School of Gerontology at USC Leonard Davis—Mitochondrial biology asserts the need to prolong the lifespan and healthspan. Dietary constraints posit the only means of altering mitochondrial function and longevity. This peptide could make it possible to apply directly to mitochondrial function.
MOTS-c is limited to scientific and educational purposes only, not for human consumption. It is only available for sale to licensed researchers.