What are Peptides?
A peptide is a molecule made up of two or more amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. It can also be defined as a polymer formed by binding amino acid subunits. A peptide molecule can be biologically active alone or can act as a subunit for a larger molecule. Proteins are essentially very large peptides, often consisting of several peptide subunits. Peptides are important in biology, chemistry, and medicine because they are blocks of hormones, toxins, proteins, enzymes, cells, and tissues of the body.
Peptides are biologically and medically important molecules. They occur naturally inside organisms, and compounds synthesized in the laboratory are active when introduced into a body. Peptides act as structural components of cells and tissues, hormones, toxins, antibiotics, and enzymes. Examples of peptides include the hormone oxytocin, glutathione (stimulates tissue growth), melittin (bee venom), the pancreatic hormone insulin, and glucagon (a hyperglycemic factor).
Any disease is a pathology of the cell. Thus, it is crucial for the body to obtain a constant supply of peptides. Once in the cell, the peptides accelerate the process of protein biosynthesis by interacting with cellular DNA. Despite their size, these small chains are vital biological entities capable of stimulating the process of cell regeneration, activating the body’s resources, preventing disease, inflammation, aging. They are non-toxic and do not cause allergies.
Adipotides are represented by a class of proapoptotic peptides, charged with the task of removing the cells of fat present in the organism. The way this is done is by restricting the blood supply to the adipose tissue, but not to the vessels that supply blood for the rest of the body. Adipotide’s capability to aid in the process of losing weight, better the reactions manifested to insulin resistance, and decrease the symptoms of type 2 diabetes have been proved through research conducted on monkeys.
AOD9604 is a peptide that was modified, which was initially developed in order to be used in the treatment of obesity. It represents an alteration of the peptide fragment 176-191 of human growth hormone (HGH). When it comes to the way AOD9604 performs in the body, its action is limited to boosting lyposis, thus making it a valuable component in the treatment of obesity.
The use of AOD9604 is known to not provoke any clinical or medical risks of developing diabetes or glucose intolerance, due to the fact that it does not intervene in any processes regarding the levels of insulin or IGF1 in the organism. Moreover, having a resembling structure to the one of HGH, it is proved to not induce immunogenic effects and is immunologically safe.
BPC-157, also known as Body Protection Compound-157, is procured from the parent protein known as body protection compound (BPC). BPC is represented by a protein that is naturally produced in the digestive tract of the human organism and its mechanism of the action revolves around protecting the lining of the gastrointestinal tract from injury, mediating healing, and stimulating the growth of blood vessels. BPC 157 is a Penta-decapeptide constituting a chain made up of 15 amino acids. Research conducted on laboratory subjects has demonstrated its effectiveness in healing various lesions such as muscle, tendon, and torn ligaments.
Moreover, this peptide protects organs and aids in avoiding gastric ulcers.
When it comes to the health of the digestive tract, BPC-157 also helps inhibit conditions such as IBS, gastrointestinal cramps, and Cohn’s disease.
Mod GRF 1-29 (CJC-1295 NO DAC)
MOD GRF (1-29) is considered a synthetic peptide analog of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). In the 1980s, conducted research has shown that the first 29 amino acids of GHRH had the entirety of biological capacities associated with the full-length 44 residue protein, which means that GRF 1-29, the shortest segment of GHRH possesses all of the properties of a full-length hormone.
Even if GRF is considered to be as biologically strong as GHRH, the difference comes when talking about the duration of action. Its action is limited because it has a half-life of only 10 minutes, the reason why researchers have decided to alter it, in order to enhance its duration of action, also adding a better therapeutic potential.
Receptor Grade IGF-1 LR3
RECEPTOR GRADE IGF-1 LR3 PEPTIDE is considered to be a prime research reagent, used in research for cellular growth, IGF receptors, and IGF binding proteins.
Due to a notable improvement in its biological activity, it is said to be more potent than rH IGF-1 and Media Grade IGF-1 LR3 in vitro.
In order to get the best outcomes when conducting any animal research, Receptor Grade IGF-1 LR3 should be the reagent of choice.
IGF-1 LR3 is highly capable of inducing the type 1 IGF receptor and thereby promotes an increased level of intracellular signaling, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis inhibition.
CJC-1295 DAC is said to be a synthetic analog of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) which increases plasma levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The drug affinity complex (DAC) is an additive component that helps to prolong the half-life of CJC-1295 in plasma. Researchers have made many synthetic alterations of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) which have specific selective traits of the hormone while removing others. CJC-1295 happens to be one of such synthetic analogs that comprise the first 29 amino acids of GHRH. It produces a GH secretagogue that has much better solubility, is more facile to synthesize, and keeps the biological results of GH, due to the fact that it is a maleimide derivative of 1-29 residues of hGRF.
Delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) is represented by a neuropeptide that influences various endocrine and physiological pathways involved in the central nervous system.
Due to the fact that DSIP aids in fighting oxidative stress and regulates myocardial contractility, it is said to be of great interest. Delta sleep-inducing peptide is a peptide of short length, that is produced naturally in the organism, just like most peptides. The name of this molecule is due to the fact that it induces sleep in laboratory subjects, such as rabbits. Studies have shown that DSIP influences levels of corticotropin inhibits the production of somatostatin, reduces stress, maintains normal blood pressure, changes sleep patterns, and affects the perception of pain.
Epithalon, a peptide that also goes by the names of Epitalon, Epithalone, or Epithalamin, is a little synthetic peptide that activates the telomerase enzyme and promotes the liberation of melatonin. This substance was first created in the 1980s in Russia and was proved to slow down age-related modifications in reproductive and immune systems and better the life span of laboratory subjects such as rats and mice. Apart from its ability to regulate aging, this peptide is of great importance and has proved to have an important role in some classes of cancer, regulation of DNA, and diseases with infectious character.
Fragment 176-191 peptide, which is also known as the “lipolytic fragment” represents a truncated part of Hgh (human growth hormone). Its name was invented because of the studies which have been conducted on animals, which have demonstrated the fact that Fragment 176-191 increases fat metabolism in genetically engineered obese lab subjects.
Human growth hormone treatment has shown many side effects on the body, effects which include suppression of carbohydrate metabolism, altered sensitivity towards insulin, promotion of long bone growth, and heightened insulin-like growth factor-1(GF-1) levels. Substantial research done on animals has revealed that the synthetic fragment increases the lipolytic results of hGH without inducing the same adverse reactions.
GHK-CU is a naturally occurring peptide that was first purified from human blood plasma.
Due to this, it was also found in saliva and urine. When it comes to research on this peptide, GHK-Cu shows a substantially valuable role in healing lesions, injury, and wounds and in the functions of the body that involve the immune system. Moreover, GHK-Cu possesses properties of anti-aging, inhibits bacterial infections, and betters skin health.
GHRP-2, which also goes by pralmorelin, is a synthetic growth hormone secretagogue that intercommunicates with the GH secretagogue receptor. This was one of the first hormone secretagogues to be launched commercially.
If the evaluation of lack of GH or adrenal failure is needed, then this peptide is commercialized as a test for these purposes. Considerable investigations have been conducted in order to determine its role in muscle regulation, appetite, sleep, and the immune system. GHRP-2 stays orally and sublingually active and thus it does not request an intravenous introduction for its physiological effects.
GHRP-6 is considered to be a potent stimulant that aids in the liberation of natural growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary gland. Moreover, it works as a GH receptor agonist as well and it has its place amongst the ghrelin analogs developed in recent decades.
It has proved to have a good effect on the cells of the cardiac muscles, formation of memory, sex drive, formation of scars.
Hexarelin, which also goes by Examorelin is represented by a synthetic analog of ghrelin and displays an increased similarity to GHRP-6. The factor that distinguishes the two is the addition of two methyl groups to the structure of GHRP-6. Hexarelin is known to stay active orally as well as sublingually, showing increased selectivity in its mechanism of action. Research has been extensively conducted in order to determine its influence on cardiac cell survival following ischemia and deprivation of nutrients.
IGF-1 LR3, also known as insulin-like growth factor-1 long arginine 3, which is its full name, represents a modified version of insulin-like growth factor-1.
When it comes to cell proliferation, division, and cell-to-cell communication, all forms of IGF-1 contribute greatly to the processes. Research has shown that IGF-1 LR3 does not communicate with IGF binding proteins as potently as IGF-1, in spite of displaying physiological reactions similar to the parent protein. The increased half-life of IGF-1 LR3 in the blood is due to the alterations done to the structure of the peptide.
Ipamorelin is said to be a peptide sequence of reduced dimensions that links with the ghrelin/GH secretagogue. Extensive investigations have revealed that this peptide is especially selective when it comes to its mechanism of action and does not induce the non-specific release of hormones such as prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, ACTH, luteinizing hormone, and cortisol.
Ipamorelin is a valuable subject for research of selectivity in receptor linking and it is a possible contender for therapeutic use, due to its increased specificity.
This peptide has an influence on the growth and repair of muscles and skeletal tissue of the organism due to its ability to set off the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and blocking the secretion of somatostatin.
LL-37, also identified as the only known human Cathelicidin, is a family of proteins in which every individual manifests various roles and functions. Produced by macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, these peptides have displayed bactericidal action, along with a considerable amount of other substantial effects. These effects, of LL-37 especially, have been revealed to charge this peptide with a valuable role in autoimmune disease, cancer, and injury healing. This family is usually referred to as AMP’s (antimicrobial peptides).
MELANOTAN 1 (MT-1) is believed to be a synthetic variant of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). One of the roles of this peptide is to aid in treating erythropoietic protoporphyria in order to avoid any kind of damage or sun-related injury to the skin, hence the fact it was originally created to act as a sunless tanning agent.
When it comes to clinical studies regarding this peptide, researchers have revealed that trials are in phase II for keratosis (a specific type of sun-induced skin damage). It is also in phase III for curing polymorphous light eruption.
Melanotan 2 represents a type of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, that has as a result the pigmentation of the skin. It is a form of Melanotan I (afamelanotide), a substance used in the therapy of erythropoietic protoporphyria.
A different view expressed by researchers is that it might not cause pigmentation as much as it will help in boosting melanocytes to help against UV rays in organisms that have a deficiency of this peptide. This signifies that it has more attributes for the avoidance of itchiness and sores than darkening the skin.
PT-141, which also goes by bremelanotide, is generally named the female Viagra. It has been researched in clinical trials for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in females. It is known to be derived from Melanotan 2. It is basically a melanocortin that communicates with melanocortin 4 receptor (MC-4R) and MC-1R. This product was investigated for the treatment of acute hemorrhage 12 years ago.
Sermorelin is represented by a synthetic peptide equivalent to the first 29 amino acids, which encloses the active part of native, hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (somatorelin; GHRH), which itself exists as a 37, 40, or 44 amino acid peptide.
Sermorelin is built to replicate the results of growth hormone-releasing hormone by liberating somatropin from the organism’s somatotropic cells.
Tesamorelin acetate, which is known less formally as Tesamorelin and Egrifta (when it comes to its brand name), is a synthetic peptide hormone. Peptides are known to be chains of amino acids. These are the substances that constitute proteins. Tesamorelin is a hormone as well and that signifies that it interacts with the endocrine system. It sends chemical signals to your body to help regulate functioning. To be even more specific, Tesamorelin peptide is a synthetic replica of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), which is naturally made. This is a peptide that deserves to be mentioned because of its contribution to the management of HIV. Research proves that it has the ability to reduce cardiovascular diseases in HIV-infected test subjects. Tesamorelin is also being evaluated as a therapy for insulin resistance and obesity.
Thymalin is considered to be a synthetic derivate of thymulin, which is a substance that is naturally occurring in the thymus. It stimulates cell-mediated immunity, increases phagocytosis and the process of hematopoiesis and also regeneration.
It is used in the practice of medicine as an immunostimulant in the elaborated treatment of diseases followed by suppression of cell-mediated immunity. This encloses consequences of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as trophic ulcers, burns, and also inflammatory diseases.
Thymosin Alpha 1
Thymosin alpha 1 is a peptide that is produced naturally by the organism. It is clinically researched for cystic fibrosis, infections, respiratory disorders, hepatitis, and cancer. Thymosin Alpha-1 is also being researched for the treatment of Hepatitis B and C and is also approved for inclusion with vaccines to stimulate the immune response in the treatment of other diseases. It is said to have a pleiotropic effect, which means that it is able to modulate the immune system’s reaction as well as assist with inflammation. It does this by working with T-cells and the natural maturation of the killer cells.
MGF (Mechano Growth Factor)
MECHANO-GROWTH FACTOR (MGF) is an alternative way to call the inulin-like growth factor-1Eb (IGF-1Eb) isoform of IGF-1.
When it comes to the remodeling of muscles, and cellular survival and proliferation, this peptide is charged with a considerable role. Current research conducted on this isoform emphasizes the role it possesses in the activation of satellite cells in skeletal muscle, implying that this isoform is capable of activating satellite cells in skeletal muscle as well, shielding neurons, and aiding in the process of overpowering the age-related loss of muscle mass. The main role of MGF is to promote the restoration of severe muscle injury and damage.
Oxytocin is a little peptide, made of nine amino acids. It is also known as a hormone produced by the hypothalamus, released from the neurohypophysis in the bloodstream, and secreted by the posterior pituitary. Oxytocin receptors are found in cells throughout the body. Besides the hypothalamus, it can also be produced by ovaries, placenta, retina, and even by the pancreas.
Along with dopamine, serotonin, and endorphins, oxytocin is part of the group called “happiness neurotransmitters”. They have the function of increasing feelings of well- being and reducing stress, anxiety and improving depression. It also regulates bonding with newborns, sexual production, and milk production as well.
PEG-MGF (Peglyated MGF)
PEGYLATED MECHANO-GROWTH FACTOR (PEG-MGF) is a partially modified variant of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). It has been revealed to possess the ability to stimulate muscle cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as increase endurance, stimulate the mechanism of action of the immune system and lower the levels of cholesterol. Its other benefits include enhancement of plasma stability of a compound such as MGF, by lowering its clearance in the kidneys. Hence, Pegylation is considered to be a common, safe and valuable alteration.
Is represented by a tiny peptide displaying nootropic and anxiolytic traits. It is a synthetic analogue of Tuftsin, which is a substance produced naturally, as well as an immunomodulatory peptide regulating T helper cells, IL-6, monoamine neurotransmitters, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).
Even though it is an analogue of Tuftsin, Selank shows a structural difference, having an addition of four amino acids in its sequence, which have the role of increasing half-life and metabolic stability. Other clinical research has revealed that it is also suitable for anxiety disorders.
SEMAX is a synthetic analog of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) made of amino acids 4-10 of ACTH. Research has shown that this peptide can be helpful when it comes to medical conditions such as strokes, cognitive impairment, dementia, and optic nerve inflammation.
It also supports the immune system, can play a role as an antidepressant, and has anxiolytic traits as well. Studies have shown that Semax has the ability to enhance the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the central nervous system, serotonin and dopamine levels as well.
This is a synthetic analog of Thymosin Beta-4 peptide, which is naturally occurring in the organisms of humans and animals. It is a part of a family consisting of 16 related molecules with a high degree of sequence conservation and localization in most of the tissues cells of the organism. TB-500 aids in obstructing actin polymerization in eukaryotic cells.
Due to its ability to promote new blood cell growth, heal and mediate muscle damage and muscle development, this peptide is considered to be one of the most valuable wound healing molecules, also possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Thymosin Beta-4 unlike other growth factors helps in endothelial and keratinocyte migration.